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Scientist
1564
A new recyclable size-selective filtration device. Particle size, chemical purity and dispersion of nanoparticles crucially determine their optical, electronic and chemical properties. Size-selective separation technologies are becoming increasingly important for the development of nanoparticles with...

A new recyclable size-selective filtration device.

Particle size, chemical purity and dispersion of nanoparticles crucially determine their optical, electronic and chemical properties. Size-selective separation technologies are becoming increasingly important for the development of nanoparticles with well-defined sizes, which have application in the fields of optoelectronic devices, biomedicine, materials, and catalysis.

Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have fabricated supramolecular ultrafiltration membranes that can be used for filtration and size-selective chromatography of nanoparticles. The membranes are composed of a self-assembled three-dimensional fibrous network that is held together by reversible non-covalent interactions.

The membranes are robust, easy to fabricate, and recyclable.

Applications


  • Size-selective separation of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles
  • Uniformity and monodispersity of nanoparticles in solution.
  • Size exclusion chromatography of nanoparticles in the sub-5-nm size regime.

Advantages


  • Efficient and inexpensive

  • Fast and easy fabrication

  • Recyclable

  • Self-assembled

  • Dual application regime: filtration and/or chromatography


Technology's Essence


The recyclable supramolecular membranes are formed from unique perylene derivatives that are large and flat aromatic molecules. These molecules are insoluble in water and form a 3-D network over a solid support, which can be used for the separation of nanoparticles.

The filters can be subsequently recycled from this mixture using an organic solvent (e.g. dichloromethane), which separates the membrane material from the water-soluble nanoparticles, and reused without loss of performance.

This material is hence highly attractive for application in the field of nanotechnology.

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  • Prof. Boris Rybtchinski
1597
Metal-oxide material generates electromechanical stress an order of magnitude above existing materials.The ability to develop a mechanical stress in response to the application of an external electric field has many uses, and characteristic materials are classified as either piezoelectric or...

Metal-oxide material generates electromechanical stress an order of magnitude above existing materials.The ability to develop a mechanical stress in response to the application of an external electric field has many uses, and characteristic materials are classified as either piezoelectric or electrostrictive. Modern inorganic piezoelectric devices are used for a wide variety of applications from inexpensive speakers and headphones, to sophisticated sonar transducers. Over the last several decades, these materials have become highly reliable and technologically mature, but the magnitude of the mechanical stress they can generate in response to an input electric signal has reached an upper limit.This innovative technology applies Gadolinium-doped Cerium Oxide (Gd-doped CeO2) to piezoelectric and electrostrictive devices and will enable high-performance electromechanical materials with output capabilities an order of magnitude above existing solutions, in excess of 500 MPa. This could facilitate the next generation of many consumer and industrial electronic devices.

Applications


  • Wide range of personal electronic devices
  • Industrial and fine electronics – specifically powerful acoustic transducers

Advantages


  • Generate large displacement and large stress simultaneously
  • Sensitive and tunable properties

Technology's Essence


In piezoelectric devices, stress develops due to the deformation of a non-centrosymmetric lattice under the application of an electric field. In commercial electrostrictors, or materials with centrosymmetric lattices and very large dielectric constants, an external electric field distorts the unit cells of the lattice, rendering them locally non-centrosymmetric. In both cases, the electromechanical stress develops due to a small displacement of atoms within each unit cell. Increasing the magnitude of the response would lead to more powerful actuators, and permit a decrease in the operating voltage; therefore, the search for novel mechanisms of electromechanical response in solids remains an important objective for both fundamental and applied science.

We have demonstrated that Gd-doped CeO2, specifically Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9, can generate stress an order of magnitude greater than the best electromechanically active materials. The large stress develops in response to the rearrangement of cerium-oxygen vacancy pairs and their local environment. This effect is expected to be two-fold; i) an applied electric field results in strain and stress directly, and ii) application of the external electric field affects the elastic modulus of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 by suppressing the chemical strain effect. This is a fundamentally different mechanism than materials currently in use. In this view, Gd-doped CeO2 is representative of a new family of high-performance electromechanical materials.

 

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1643
Improving beta cell isolation and purification techniques is a critical step towards the development of new cell-based therapies, diagnostic applications and diabetes research. Pancreatic Islets are composed of mixed cell populations, among them beta cells, which represent a major focus of interest due...

Improving beta cell isolation and purification techniques is a critical step towards the development of new cell-based therapies, diagnostic applications and diabetes research. Pancreatic Islets are composed of mixed cell populations, among them beta cells, which represent a major focus of interest due to their participation in the pathology of diabetes. Various techniques have been suggested to accomplish this step, yet efficient and robust isolation of beta cells remains a challenging task.
The present invention provides an efficient tag-free isolation method for pancreatic cell sub-types, based on separation according to a newly identified collection of surface markers. These markers are tightly correlated with specific functions, such as insulin production, ensuring enrichment of the desired functionality.
Probing against the newly identified markers in a combinatorial manner allows high degree of purity without compromising the yield, significantly increasing the amount of purified cells. Finally, the method is compatible with both extracts of pancreatic tissues and stem cells derived cultures, the latter set up high expectations in the diabetes therapy field.

Applications


A kit for isolation of distinct pancreatic cell subtypes

Advantages


  • High purity without compromising the yield of isolated cells.
  • Compatible with a variety of heterogeneous sources including cells extracted from pancreatic tissue, committed lineages of stem cells and cultures of differentiated stem cells.                                               

Technology's Essence


Using an innovative high throughput screen, linking specific cell surface markers with a particular functionality (e.g. insulin production), a collection of markers not previously identified in connection with pancreatic cells or with diabetes was found to be consistently expressed in human islets.
Cell isolation according to the selected markers is performed by exposing the heterogeneous source of cells to specific antibodies that recognize these markers, followed by a choice of sorting techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).
The innovative concept of this method is the use of marker combinations, iterating the selection. Only cells that express both markers will be sorted out, thus increasing specificity and reducing contaminations. This increased specificity gives rise to a higher degree of purity without compromising the yield, resulting in larger amounts of isolated cells.
By applying the initial screen in yet another iteration, additional markers can be added to the selection, to refine the isolation procedure. 
As this method is generally applicable to the purification of mature as well as pluripotent or partially differentiated beta cell progenitors, it holds great potential for the isolation of clinically relevant cells for treatments of diabetes.

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  • Prof. Michael Walker
  • Prof. Michael Walker
1646
Dedicated and highly efficient EPR analysis of small volume samples in a range of few µl is now made simple with a novel device invented at the Weizmann Institute of Science. This device features a new ejection mechanism and a unique cold trap which enables collection of all time points in a RFQ series...

Dedicated and highly efficient EPR analysis of small volume samples in a range of few µl is now made simple with a novel device invented at the Weizmann Institute of Science. This device features a new ejection mechanism and a unique cold trap which enables collection of all time points in a RFQ series in one continuous experiment.
In order to design and develop inhibitors for therapeutic purposes, the reaction mechanisms of enzymes must be understood. For biological applications, a common methodology of addressing this need is combining Rapid Freeze Quench with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (RFQ)-EPR, which allows the trapping and analysis of short lived intermediates in chemical reactions. However, commercial RFQ-EPR devices are limited for high field EPR applications due to the demand of large sample volumes for each time point.
Prof. Goldfarb and her team built a new RFQ apparatus based on microfluidic flow and unique ejection and freezing systems, which can be used for collecting small volume samples in capillaries for high field EPR.

Applications


This technology, combined with the variety of W-band high resolution EPR technique (ENDOR, DEER and ESEEM) enables better mechanistic studies of enzymatic reactions, with an emphasis on structural transformations during the reaction, in an efficient and accurate way.


Advantages


  • Collecting all RFQ time points in one continues experiment.
  • Produce small volume samples in the range of a few µl, and handles small capillaries, for high field ERP.
  • An improved dead time of ~5ms, relative to the commercial RFQs with a typical dead-time of 5–10 ms.
  • Ease-of-use and speed.

Technology's Essence


The innovative apparatus consists of two main parts: the microfluidic device and the freeze-quench setup. The microfluidic device comprises a mixer, which mixes the two reacting solutions, a flow path where the reaction occurs, and a sprinkler from which the solution is sprayed out of the device. Prof. Goldfarb and her colleagues improved the common mixing device by adding a fast stream of nitrogen gas which mixes with the ejected reaction solution, and sprays the frozen aerosol out in tiny drops at high speed.
The innovative RFQ device was planned to have a cold solid surface on which the freezing happens rather than the traditional ejection into a cold liquid, in order to minimize the losses of the frozen solution. Moreover the plate rotates at a speed correlated to the flow speed of the solution, thus samples of different reaction times can freeze on a different radius. The frozen samples are then collected into quartz capillaries.

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  • Prof. Daniella Goldfarb
1551
A novel set of manganese, ruthenium and related borohydride complexes (Pincer-type) were developed as remarkably efficient and environmentally-benign catalysts for the synthesis of alcohols, amines, amides, imines and esters, which are the basic building blocks for the research, chemicals,...

A novel set of manganese, ruthenium and related borohydride complexes (Pincer-type) were developed as remarkably efficient and environmentally-benign catalysts for the synthesis of alcohols, amines, amides, imines and esters, which are the basic building blocks for the research, chemicals, pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. In addition, a catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation using non-activated aliphatic nitriles and carbonyl compounds was achieved with the manganese complex. These reactions are conducted under mild and neutral conditions, using low catalyst loading, require no hydrogen acceptors or oxidants, employ no corrosive or toxic reagents and generate no waste. Moreover, manganese is one of the most abundant transition metals on earth crust, making it appealing and biocompatible when considering a system for eventual scale-up and industrial use.

In view of global concerns regarding economy, environment and sustainable energy resources, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new catalytic reactions. These newly developed catalysts address key problems of current traditional synthetic methodologies, both from the economic and the environmental aspects.

Applications


·         Pharmaceuticals

·         Dyes

·         Cosmetics and fragrances

·         Fibers

·         Agrochemicals


Advantages


·         Cost-effective in terms of reagents, reactions conditions (low temperature and pressure) and waste treatment (green reactions).

·         New synthetic pathways that were not possible before, such as the synthesis of amides and imines directly from alcohols and amines, esters synthesis from alcohols and methanol synthesis from CO2 and hydrogen.

·         Broad substrate scope.

·         Excellent yields.


Technology's Essence


Prof. David Milstein’s group has discovered a new mode of action for metal-ligand cooperation, involving aromatization–dearomatization of ligands. Pincer-type, pyridine-based complexes of Mn, Ir, Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and acridine complexes of Ru have been shown to exhibit such cooperation, leading to facile activation of C-H, C-C, H-H, N-H, O-H bonds, and to novel, environmentally friendly reactions catalyzed by Mn and Ru.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1577
A novel desulfurization system achieves removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from industrial exhaust streams at efficiencies that can greatly supersede technologies currently in use. The chemical process is highly selective to SO2, and consumes much less reagents, therefore reducing the cost of...

A novel desulfurization system achieves removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from industrial exhaust streams at efficiencies that can greatly supersede technologies currently in use. The chemical process is highly selective to SO2, and consumes much less reagents, therefore reducing the cost of desulfurization.Techniques to capture SO2 from coal-burning plants have not changed in nearly 40 years. Once implemented, the technology presented here can become significantly more efficient and environmentally friendly than existing techniques, since no slurry waste is created from the wet sorbents typically used to capture SO2.The novel system can selectively recycle SO2 into useful sulfur-based compounds which can be resold; utilizing a carbonate eutectic melt this procedure can also be aimed to generate elemental sulfur, an inert and non-toxic compound which can be stored long-term until required for further use.In a world anxious over climate change, yet in demand of more energy, solutions should have the capacity to be implemented quickly and incorporated into existing infrastructure. This technology offers the potential to tackle several problems with one simple solution.

Applications


Integrate into industrial fossil-fuel burning facilities which include:

  • Power plants
  • Cement factories
  • Steel foundries

Advantages


  • Implement into existing infrastructure and reduce reagents’ costs compared to current techniques
  • Significantly higher efficiency and elimination of hazardous waste by-products
  • Potential generation of revenue from recycled Sulfur waste.

Technology's Essence


The significant enhancement of this scrubbing technique is the sequentially operable scrubbing zone and regeneration zone, which communicate with one another via a molten eutectic mixture of lithium, sodium and potassium carbonates. In the scrubbing zone, an ingress flue gas interacts with the molten carbonates, resulting in chemical absorbance of the SO2 and in discharge of reaction gases. In the regeneration zone, either chemical or electrochemical melt regeneration takes place resulting in formation of sulfur containing vapor which is cooled down for converting the sulfur-containing vapor into a liquid and solid phase for a further collection and utilization.The technology developed by Prof. Igor Lubomirsky and his team introduces three essential improvements over past techniques: (i) the removal of sulfate from the melt is achieved at expected operating temperatures of an industrial scrubbing tower (480-550°C), which drastically reduces corrosion of metal components, (ii) the reduction of sulfates by CO gas rather than by carbon powder represents a simpler, one-step process, which results in a high reduction rate and allows for the reaction chamber to be small (few tens of m3 for a 1GW coal plant), and (iii) the removal of sulfate in the form of COS, rather than H2S, provides considerable freedom in choosing the final sulfur product – either sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur.

 

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1615
A new process for the production of catalytic metal coated WS2 nanotubes, using cobalt, palladium, nickel, chromium and noble metals.These metal coated nanotubes were shown to have catalytic activity in different organic reactions including degradation of known organic contaminants (Co coated) and...

A new process for the production of catalytic metal coated WS2 nanotubes, using cobalt, palladium, nickel, chromium and noble metals.
These metal coated nanotubes were shown to have catalytic activity in different organic reactions including degradation of known organic contaminants (Co coated) and Suzuki and Heck coupling reactions (Pd coated).
Since catalytic chemical reactions are at the heart of many processes and industries, and efficient catalysis is essential for both economic and environmental reasons, this development of a new catalytic platform bears a potential to influence many diverse markets.

Applications


  • New and efficient Pd-based catalysts for diverse reactions.
  • New and efficient crude oil HDS catalysts.
  • New and efficient wastewater purification catalysts.
  • Production of activated hybrid WS2 nanotubes with new properties.
  • Tailoring catalytic nanotubes with different band gaps adjusted to different activation and catalysis applications.

Advantages


  • Formation of highly active catalytic nanotubes
  • Utilization of the nanotubes' very large surface area
  • Recruiting specific nanotube semiconducting characteristics for special catalysis requirements

Technology's Essence


The invention involves deposition of metal nanoparticles on prepared WS2 nanotubes (INT-WS2) in a two stage process involving Pd-nanocrystallites assisted activation followed by electroless plating.
In this process WS2 nanotubes are synthesized according to known procedures. The nanotubes are then covered by metal nanoparticles in a simple and straightforward procedure resulting with highly active nanotubes which can be utilized as catalysts for various chemical reactions.
This new hybrid technology opens the way to a new family of highly efficient, tunable catalysts; the INTs large surface area, specific band gap design and choice of metal result in an ability to produce unique tailor-made catalysts, applicable to many different industries. 

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  • Prof. Tenne Reshef
  • Prof. Tenne Reshef
1512
Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting. Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business,...

Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting.

Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business, and that counterfeit goods currently account for 5-7% of world trade. For this, companies need strategies that include various layers of security. Counterfeiters have learned to duplicate various types of security measures, so it is important to use a combination of overt and covert techniques simultaneously. The present technology consists of complexes and clusters  with a unique combination of optical and magnetic properties, that may be utilized for product authenticity.

Applications


  • Security 'markers' in documents or product authenticity, in the form of special printing inks or ink-jet applications


Advantages


  • Delayed emissions guarantees low noise level from exogenous fluorescent impurities

  • The clusters are emissive both in solution as well as in the solid state

  • Emissive complexes and clusters are circular polarized and therefore provide an additional layer of genuineness, as the true nature of the markers can only be identified using appropriate filters
  • The high magnetic properties of several of the compounds allows fast automated document screening


Technology's Essence


The outlined technology consists of a series of chiral organic ligands, their metal complexes, and several multi-nuclear clusters. Upon excitation, fluorescence emission can be selected to occur in the visible or the invisible near infrared regions of the spectrum. The spectrum is characterized by several well resolved emission maxima. The unique combination of optical and magnetic properties of these materials makes them promising candidates to serve as security 'markers'.

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  • Prof. Abraham Shanzer
1184
Trace chemical or biological elements can be accurately detected and monitored in the field or at the point of care through use of this new quick, cost-effective platform technology based on a hybrid chemical-electronic detector. Analytes can be measured according to the electrical current changes they...

Trace chemical or biological elements can be accurately detected and monitored in the field or at the point of care through use of this new quick, cost-effective platform technology based on a hybrid chemical-electronic detector. Analytes can be measured according to the electrical current changes they induce with high specificity and accuracy at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels.

Applications


Transducer which may be developed to suite: Medical diagnostics: point of care, real time diagnostics of chemical and biological substances. Environmental watch: monitoring air or water pollution, testing for food poisoning. Chemical warfare: detection of chemical agents and explosives. Industry: monitoring industrial processes at real time.

Technology's Essence


Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have developed a platform technology based on novel hybrid chemical-electronic detector MOCSER (MOlecular Controlled SEmiconductor Resistor). The technology is based on a new type of a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) electronic device covered with a monolayer of sensing molecules. The detection is achieved by measuring the current changes created due to analyte binding. The researchers have succeeded in showing high sensitivity and accuracy of the device down to parts per billion (ppb) levels. They have also demonstrated the possibility for broad applications of this detector by tailoring different sensing molecules on it and measuring various substances.

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  • Prof. Ron Naaman
  • Prof. David Cahen
1392
A catalytic based reaction for the treatment of industrial waste water. Millions of tons of organic chemical compounds - including solvents, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals - are produced every year by a wide variety of chemical industries. Two immediate problems arise: 1. Industrial...

A catalytic based reaction for the treatment of industrial waste water. Millions of tons of organic chemical compounds - including solvents, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals - are produced every year by a wide variety of chemical industries. Two immediate problems arise: 1. Industrial production of these chemicals and/or other products leads to effluent streams - highly toxic, contaminated aqueous solutions - from factories. These effluents must be treated prior to release of the water back into the environment. 2. Following use, these chemicals (e.g., agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals) become serious pollutants as they eventually find their way into the soil, sediment, and surface and/or groundwater environments. Current treatment methods are severely limited. Treatment of effluent streams by, e.g., filtration, photocatalysis, or bioreactors is often highly ineffective - the waste compounds not being easily captured, degraded or transformed - and/or prohibitively expensive.

Applications


  • Detoxification of industrial effluents, especially from petrochemical, agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries 
  • Waste water decontamination 
  • In situ and ex situ remediation of water polluted by organic and other contaminants

Advantages


  • Cost efficient
  • Quick

Technology's Essence


Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have developed a new process for degradation and/or treatment of practically any organic contaminant in aqueous solutions under oxidizing (aerobic) conditions. A suite of catalytic materials has been developed which allows both in situ and ex situ remediation of polluted water by oxidative chemical degradation of contaminants. The technology eliminates or reduces a broad range of water pollutants - industrial organic solvents, petrochemicals, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals (e.g., endocrine disruptors such as antiobiotics and hormones) - and is particularly effective for treating concentrated industrial effluents, under technically convenient conditions. The reaction products consist essentially of benign materials.

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  • Prof. Brian Berkowitz
1482
Modification of the electronic properties of layered-type semiconductors can be accomplished by doping/alloying of the semiconductor. In the present disclosure we show that doping of MoS2 and WS2 nanotubes/nanoparticles can be accomplished by doping with either Re (n-type) or Nb (p-type) foreign atoms...

Modification of the electronic properties of layered-type semiconductors can be accomplished by doping/alloying of the semiconductor. In the present disclosure we show that doping of MoS2 and WS2 nanotubes/nanoparticles can be accomplished by doping with either Re (n-type) or Nb (p-type) foreign atoms. These nanoparticles combine both superior mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity.

The main market for these kinds of nanoparticles is in thin films that combine superior mechanical and electrical properties. For example, as part of touch screensin addition, polymer nanocomposites containing such nanoparticles can be used among other things in electromagnetic shielding and conductive films for packaging and high performance adhesives. These nanoparticles are expected to reveal interesting catalytic applications, for example to obtain sulfur free gasoline. They can be used in third generation photovoltaic cells, etc.

Applications


  • Catalytic processes for energy storage and sulfur free gasoline.
  • Polymer nanocomposites for packaging
  • Electromagnetic shielding.
  • Conductive glues/adhesives with superior performance.
  • Energy storage.

Advantages


The combination of superior mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity offers new kinds of applications in catalysis; energy storage; high performance nanocomposites and in macroelectronics.

 

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  • Prof. Tenne Reshef
1507
One-step synthesis of primary amines from alcohols and ammonia under mild conditions.Amines are widely used in the production of numerous products for multiple industries and their use is expected to increase. Global amines market is expected to reach over $14 billion by 2020, with an average annual...

One-step synthesis of primary amines from alcohols and ammonia under mild conditions.
Amines are widely used in the production of numerous products for multiple industries and their use is expected to increase. Global amines market is expected to reach over $14 billion by 2020, with an average annual growth of 3.5%.
Primary amines are most useful in the larger markets of ethanolamines and fatty amines.
Current synthetic methods require harsh reaction conditions, are non-specific and generate toxic waste. The outlined technology utilizes a novel catalyst to synthesize primary amines in a simple single-step fashion directly from alcohols and ammonia.

Applications


• Production of primary amines for numerous industries (agrochemicals, surfactants, personal care, water treatment, fine chemicals, plastics, dyes, pigments, food additives and pharmaceuticals)

Advantages


  • Mild reaction conditions
  • Single step synthesis
  • High yields
  • No solvent required
  • No toxic reagents or by-products
  • Ecologically and economically beneficial

Technology's Essence


Amines are a very important family of compounds used in multiple industries. The presented technology uses selective catalytic synthesis of primary amines from primary alcohols and ammonia. This simple, one-step, easily applicable reaction delivers primary amines in good yields, in addition to valuable environmental and economic advantages.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1124
Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in...

Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in real-time.

SPR and LSPR technologies are broadly used in efficient real-time detection and quantification of biomolecules in research environments; however these technologies are too complicated, cumbersome and expensive for routine applications. This novel technology combines real-time, high sensitivity and accuracy of LSPR with low cost and ease of use of other optical assays, such as ELISA.

The invention comprises the LSPR transducer element of a gold-island film biosensor, which does not suffer shortcomings such as extreme temperature sensitivity. The gold island film is rapidly integrated into lab consumables via a novel fabrication method, which produces a robust system for high-throughput molecular diagnostics.

Applications


  • Point of care, real time diagnostics of chemical and biological substances.
  • Environmental watch: monitoring air or water pollution, testing for food poisoning.
  • Chemical warfare: detection of chemical agents and explosives.
  • Real-time monitoring of marine biofouling or industry corrosion processes.

Advantages


  • Simple operation, versatile and inexpensive method to imbed sensor in standard lab consumables.
  • High-throughput label-free detection with sensitivity comparable to that of SPR.
  • Uses cheap, disposable samples.
  • Can be combined with a variety of biosensing technologies.

Technology's Essence


The method involves evaporation of ultrathin (?10 nm) gold films onto inert transparent substrates (e.g., glass, plastic) leading to the formation of a layer of gold islands. Gold-island films provide unique optical properties. Such films show a localized surface plasmon (LSP) absorption peak much less sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The LSP absorption band changes upon binding of various molecules to the surface. The binding process can be followed quantitatively by measuring the changes in the gold SP absorption. Selective sensing using the LSPR method can be achieved by applying a thin layer containing receptor molecules onto the gold island film, and measuring changes in the SP absorption upon binding of a specific analyte to the receptor layer

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  • Prof. Israel Rubinstein
1265
A Novel water treatment method capable of handling a wide spectrum of pollutants, both organic and metallic was developed by the group of Prof. Berkowitz and proven in large scale. The combination of ever-growing contamination from various sources (industry, agriculture and domestic uses), the toxicity...

A Novel water treatment method capable of handling a wide spectrum of pollutants, both organic and metallic was developed by the group of Prof. Berkowitz and proven in large scale.

The combination of ever-growing contamination from various sources (industry, agriculture and domestic uses), the toxicity of contaminating compounds, and their extreme persistence in the environment, define a complex challenge and serious threat. Feasible technological responses to deal with growing deterioration in water resource quality are difficult to develop, largely because of the wide variety of contaminants having different properties, the stringent environmental standards that must be met, and the inherent heterogeneity of natural aquatic systems. The quest for cost-effective, environmentally-acceptable methods that can target a wide spectrum of contaminants, in situ and ex situ, is urgent and critical today more than ever.

The approach of the technology presented here is to reduce their oxidation state, i.e., to transform them electrochemically. In most cases, complete transformation of contaminants from the oxidized-organic group produces environmentally innocuous compounds, while reduction of heavy metals renders them insoluble and immobile, and therefore much less harmful. These treatment methods can be applied both in situ and ex situ for decontamination of soils, sediments, water, wastewater and gaseous process streams.

Applications


•           Polluted water and wastewater treatment.

•           Soil decontamination.

•           Gaseous process stream treatment.


Advantages


•           Environmentally friendly output.

•           Cost effective.

•           Can be applied in situ as well as ex situ.


Technology's Essence


The treatment method presented here is based on nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix.  Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows

high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours.

 

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  • Prof. Brian Berkowitz
1448
A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes. Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and...

A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes.

Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and chemical systems (e.g. proteins). Synthesis of amides is mostly based on activated acid derivatives or rearrangement reactions induced by an acid or base, which often produce toxic chemical waste and involve tedious procedures. Therefore, an efficient synthesis that avoids wasteful use of coupling reagents or corrosive acidic and basic media is highly desirable. The current technology allows for the clean production of amides from amines and alcohols.

Applications


  • Production of amides for various applications (plastic and rubber industry, paper industry, pharmaceutical intermediates, etc.)

  • Use of the liberated hydrogen (e.g. for the production of ammonia)


Advantages


  • Clean and selective procedure

  • Environment friendly reaction (no base or acid promoters are required, no carboxylic acid derivatives, such as acid chlorides, are needed)

  • Amides and molecular hydrogen are produced in high yields and high turnover numbers directly from alcohols in one step

  • The liberated hydrogen can be used for different applications

  • Formation of a variety of amides


Technology's Essence


Amide formation is a fundamental reaction in chemical synthesis. Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid derivative with an amine. Instead of using carboxylic acid derivative, in the present invention the amide motif is generated by direct acylation of amines with alcohols. This is possible through the use of a unique catalyst. This method enables the simple and elegant production of amide polymers and industrially important amides.

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  • Prof. David Milstein

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