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A method to significantly shorten acquisition times of high-quality MRI images. Multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used nowadays in many applications (e.g., discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs, characterization of new catalysts, and investigation of the structure and dynamics of...

A method to significantly shorten acquisition times of high-quality MRI images.

Multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used nowadays in many applications (e.g., discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs, characterization of new catalysts, and investigation of the structure and dynamics of proteins). One drawback of this technique is that, by contrast to one-dimensional spectroscpic methods, multidimensional NMR requires relatively long measurement times associated with hundreds or thousands of scans. This places certain kinds of rapidly-changing systems in Chemistry outside the scope of the technique. Long acquisition times also make this technique ill-suited for in vivo analyses and for clinical measurements in combination with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The current technology allows for the acquisition of multidimentional NMR scans using a single continuous scan, thereby shortening the time needed to acquire high-quality MRI images.

Applications


  • In vivo diagnostics

  • High-throughput proteomics/metabonomics

  • NMR of unstable chemical systems

  • Metabolic dynamics

  • High-resolution NMR in tabletop systems

  • Extensions to non-MR spectroscopies


Advantages


  • Can shorten the acquisition time of any multidimensional spectroscopy experiment by orders of magnitude
  • Compatible with the majority of multidimensional pulse sequences
  • Can be implemented using conventional NMR and MRI hardware

Technology's Essence


The outlined approach, called ultrafast multidimensional NMR, significantly expedites the analysis of the electromagnetic sounds produced, making it possible to acquire complete multidimensional NMR spectra within a fraction of a second. This technology “slices up” the molecular sample into numerous thin layers and then simultaneously performs all the measurements required on every one of these slices. The protocol then integrates these measurements according to their precise location, generating an image that amounts to a full multidimensional spectrum from the entire sample.

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  • Prof. Lucio Frydman
1506
A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products. Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these...

A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products.

Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these systems are weather and time-dependent. Additionally, most of the geographic areas best suited for harvesting these resources are remote from population centers. Therefore the need for a reliable method to store and transport renewable energy is clear.

CO can be easily converted into methanol, which is one of the major chemical raw materials and can by itself be used as fuel for diesel engines and the energy source for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).

At present no reliable method of CO2 to CO reduction is available. Either using low temperatures which leads to low thermodynamic efficiency (<60%), Requires precious metals for electrodes and results in toxic byproducts, or using high temperatures which Requires pure CO2 input and Produces a mixture of CO2 and CO.

The current technology describes an efficient, flexible, continues method for production of CO at high temperatures (900oC) without any byproducts or toxic materials.

Applications


  • Production of CO from CO2
  • Easy conversion into methanol

Advantages


·         No precious (Pt, Ag, Au, Pd) metals required

·         No hazardous chemicals involved, no pollution

·         Continuous operation is possible

·         One can use flue gas as a source

·         Capture of CO2 from air is possible

·         The system is very compact>20 kW/m3

·         Operation conditions are very flexible

·         The process fits existing infrastructure

·         CO can be easily converted into liquid fuel (CH3OH)


Technology's Essence


The outlined technology overcomes the basic problems of CO production by using molten Li2CO3 as the electrolyte, a Ti container (will not undergo corrosion), Ti cathode (does not catalyze decomposition of CO), and a graphite anode (no chemical reaction with Li2CO3). At 900°C and current density of 0.05-2 A/cm2, this unique system enables a thermodynamic efficiency close to 100%, continues production of CO – efficiently separating CO2 to CO and O2.

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1451
A monoclonal antibody against GluR3B, a peptide found in epilepsy patients, and especially in patients suffering from intractable, resistant forms of the disease, could be used in diagnosis kits as well as in drug development for this form of "autoimmune epilepsy".

A monoclonal antibody against GluR3B, a peptide found in epilepsy patients, and especially in patients suffering from intractable, resistant forms of the disease, could be used in diagnosis kits as well as in drug development for this form of "autoimmune epilepsy".

Applications


1. Producing a new kit for epilepsy patients, able to detect GluR3b Ab's and thus GluR3-mediated neuropathology
The anti GluR3B monoclonal Ab could be used for developing a new diagnostic kit to detect neuropathogenic human anti-GluR3B in serum and CSF of patients with epilepsy. The patient's GluR3B Ab's would compete and displace the GluR3B mAb's of its ligand: the GluR3B peptide. The presence of GluR3B Ab's in a patient, would indicate that autoimmunity against GluR3 may underlie the patient's neuropathology and a) would suggest the initiation of an immune-based therapy b) prevent useless and dangerous brain surgery c) prevent non-effective medication.

2. Drug design for GluR3-mediated neuropathology
The unique GluR3B monoclonal antibody could be used to screen a potential drug for 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. The GluR3B monoclonal antibody could be used to screen for a molecule (i.e. Anti-idiotypic antibodies) that would block the GluR3 autoantibodies and their detrimental neuropathological effects.

3. Research tool for a kaleidoscope of purposes, including:

  • Detection of the GluR3 glutamate receptor subtype on various target cells.
  • Studies of the properties of the Glutamate/AMPA receptor subtype 3.
  • Studies of the Glutamate-liked agonist activity of the GluR3B monoclonal antibody, and of the GluR3 receptor ion channel gating properties.
  • Production of an animal model of 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'.
  • Studies of neuronal death caused by binding of the GluR3 autoantibody to glutamate/AMPA receptors.
  • Studies of behavioral impairments caused by binding of the GluR3 autoantibody to glutamate/AMPA receptors.

  • Technology's Essence


    Scientists from the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered a unique anti-GluR3B monoclonal antibody Glu149/29/61.

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    • Prof. Vivian I. Teichberg
    • Prof. Vivian I. Teichberg
    1270
    Monoclonal antibodies to IgE Description: Rat monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies that was generated by fusion of plasmacytoma (84.1C) or myeloma (EM953) cells with splenocytes of rat immunized with purified murine IgE mAb. The antibodies react with various IgE mAb of different specificities and not with...

    Monoclonal antibodies to IgE

    Description: Rat monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies that was generated by fusion of plasmacytoma (84.1C) or myeloma (EM953) cells with splenocytes of rat immunized with purified murine IgE mAb. The antibodies react with various IgE mAb of different specificities and not with immunoglobulins of other classes, and recognize an epitope on the murine Fc epsilon region.

    Were shown to block IgE-Fc?R interactions and inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. 

    Clone 84.1c recognizes a site on IgE, which is identical or very close to the Fc?R binding site. May be used for detection and manipulation of the IgE response in mice.

    Reference:  Schwarzbaum S, Nissim A, Alkalay I, Ghozi MC, Schindler DG, Bergman Y, Eshhar Z. 1989. Mapping of murine IgE epitopes involved in IgE-Fc epsilon receptor interactions. Eur J Immunol 19(6):1015-23.

     

    M182, M185, M186

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    • Prof. Zelig Eshhar
    1184
    Trace chemical or biological elements can be accurately detected and monitored in the field or at the point of care through use of this new quick, cost-effective platform technology based on a hybrid chemical-electronic detector. Analytes can be measured according to the electrical current changes they...

    Trace chemical or biological elements can be accurately detected and monitored in the field or at the point of care through use of this new quick, cost-effective platform technology based on a hybrid chemical-electronic detector. Analytes can be measured according to the electrical current changes they induce with high specificity and accuracy at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels.

    Applications


    Transducer which may be developed to suite: Medical diagnostics: point of care, real time diagnostics of chemical and biological substances. Environmental watch: monitoring air or water pollution, testing for food poisoning. Chemical warfare: detection of chemical agents and explosives. Industry: monitoring industrial processes at real time.

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have developed a platform technology based on novel hybrid chemical-electronic detector MOCSER (MOlecular Controlled SEmiconductor Resistor). The technology is based on a new type of a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) electronic device covered with a monolayer of sensing molecules. The detection is achieved by measuring the current changes created due to analyte binding. The researchers have succeeded in showing high sensitivity and accuracy of the device down to parts per billion (ppb) levels. They have also demonstrated the possibility for broad applications of this detector by tailoring different sensing molecules on it and measuring various substances.

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    • Prof. Ron Naaman
    • Prof. David Cahen
    1512
    Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting. Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business,...

    Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting.

    Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business, and that counterfeit goods currently account for 5-7% of world trade. For this, companies need strategies that include various layers of security. Counterfeiters have learned to duplicate various types of security measures, so it is important to use a combination of overt and covert techniques simultaneously. The present technology consists of complexes and clusters  with a unique combination of optical and magnetic properties, that may be utilized for product authenticity.

    Applications


    • Security 'markers' in documents or product authenticity, in the form of special printing inks or ink-jet applications


    Advantages


    • Delayed emissions guarantees low noise level from exogenous fluorescent impurities

    • The clusters are emissive both in solution as well as in the solid state

    • Emissive complexes and clusters are circular polarized and therefore provide an additional layer of genuineness, as the true nature of the markers can only be identified using appropriate filters
    • The high magnetic properties of several of the compounds allows fast automated document screening


    Technology's Essence


    The outlined technology consists of a series of chiral organic ligands, their metal complexes, and several multi-nuclear clusters. Upon excitation, fluorescence emission can be selected to occur in the visible or the invisible near infrared regions of the spectrum. The spectrum is characterized by several well resolved emission maxima. The unique combination of optical and magnetic properties of these materials makes them promising candidates to serve as security 'markers'.

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    • Prof. Abraham Shanzer
    358
    Escherichia coli UTL2 Description: A "leaky" strain of E. coli, which is significantly more susceptible to cytotoxic agents. UTL2 holds a mutation in the galU gene causing an impaired outer membrane. Reference:  B?j? O, Bibi E. 1996. Functional expression of mouse Mdr1 in an outer membrane...

    Escherichia coli UTL2

    Description: A "leaky" strain of E. coli, which is significantly more susceptible to cytotoxic agents. UTL2 holds a mutation in the galU gene causing an impaired outer membrane.

    Reference:  B?j? O, Bibi E. 1996. Functional expression of mouse Mdr1 in an outer membrane permeability mutant of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(12):5969-74.

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    • Prof. Eitan Bibi
    1478
    Plants can regain enhanced color and aroma via increased production of aromatic amino acids. Researchers at the Weizmann institute of science discovered a key regulatory enzyme of a central metabolic pathway in bacteria and expressed it in plants, obtaining transgenic plants with increased levels of...

    Plants can regain enhanced color and aroma via increased production of aromatic amino acids. Researchers at the Weizmann institute of science discovered a key regulatory enzyme of a central metabolic pathway in bacteria and expressed it in plants, obtaining transgenic plants with increased levels of secondary metabolites including higher level of aromatic amino acids.

    Farmers and researches have implemented intense selective breeding in flowering plants as an attempt to improve features of decorative flowers, focusing on appearance and shelf life. Consequently, one of the most valuable qualities of the flower such as its scent and had been severely weakened. Traditional breeding is limited in its ability to supply the market demand for creating original or enhanced colors due to genetic requirements.

    The innovative method can improve scent and color of decorative flowering plants without interfering with other natural mechanisms of the plant.

    Applications


    • Improved esthetical value due to strong color and pleasant scent to ornamental flowers.
    • The color and scent of flowers has an additional eco-systematic role in the reproduction of fruits. Manipulating both color and odor may allow future optimized ability the repulse insects or attracts pollinators. 
    •  This method can be applied not only to enhance naturally existing color but also for the recently commercialized production of new colors of plants. For example flavonoid biosynthesis which was shown to be enhanced by this method was also found to be highly relevant in generating unique flowers colors

    Advantages


    • Enhanced fragrance and colors utilizing natural metabolic pathways of flowering plants.
    • No breeding and selection required to enhance flowers’ traits.
    • Endogenous integration between bacteria and plant that involves no interference with other natural mechanisms in the plants.

    Technology's Essence


    Researches at Prof. Gad Galili’s lab elicited a significant increase in the direct products of the shikimate pathway and in the aromatic amino acid Phenylalanine.

    A central regulator in the shikimate pathway is the first committed enzyme of the pathway; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS). The bacterial DAHPS is feedback inhibited by a separate amino acid. At the core of this technology is the dominant isoform that is the AroG gene which is under the regulation of Phenylalanine and responsible for 80% of the total DAHPS activity.

    By expressing a mutant bacterial AroG gene encoding a feedback insensitive DAHPS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, researchers achieved increased levels of the shikimate direct metabolites, products and aromatic amino acids. Detailed analysis revealed that while no metabolite exhibited decreased levels in the transgenic plants, the levels of shikimate intermediate metabolites, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and a verity of secondary metabolites (such as auxin and hormones conjugates) were increased by the mutant bacterial gene.

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    • Prof. Gad Galili
    • Prof. Asaph Aharoni
    1378
    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute developed a novel method to design error-free DNA libraries from error-prone oligonucleotides. The system surpasses existing methods for de novo synthesis of DNA libraries in speed, precision, amenability to automation and ease of combining synthetic with natural...

    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute developed a novel method to design error-free DNA libraries from error-prone oligonucleotides. The system surpasses existing methods for de novo synthesis of DNA libraries in speed, precision, amenability to automation and ease of combining synthetic with natural DNA fragments. 

    All DNA construction protocols struggle with the cumbersome task of cloning and sequencing synthetic DNA fragments, seeking an error-free one. The problem is worsened for longer synthetic DNA which is more prone to errors. Time spent on error correction, clone selection and sequencing is a major bottleneck that prevents de novo DNA synthesis from becoming a routine procedure in labs. 

    This innovative solution significantly decreases the need for labor-intensive time-consuming error correction methods, cloning and sequencing. Furthermore, efficient editing and reassembly of different genes is made possible due to a smart recursive reconstruction process.

     

    Applications


    • Design and construction of synthetic biological molecules and organisms.
    • Construction of designer DNA libraries.

     


    Advantages


    • Applicable in any lab with standard lab equipment. Faster and more precise than existing methods.
    • Amenable to automation, full synthesis in vitro with a modified smPCR protocol.
    • Very simple to combine synthetic and natural DNA fragments.
    • Does not require additional or external methods or reagents for error correction

     


    Technology's Essence


    Divide and Conquer (D&C), the quintessential recursive problem-solving technique, is applied in silico to divide the target DNA sequence into overlapping oligonucleotides short enough to be synthesized directly, albeit with errors; error-prone oligonucleotides are recursively combined in vitro, forming error-prone DNA molecules; error-free fragments of these molecules are then identified, extracted and used as new, typically longer and more accurate, inputs to another iteration of the recursive construction procedure; the entire process repeats until an error-free target molecule is formed.

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    • Prof. Ehud Y. Shapiro
    276
    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products. §  275-276 – Monoclonal antibodies to...

    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.

    §  275-276 – Monoclonal antibodies to estrone-3-glucuronide

    Description: Monoclonal antibodies raised against estrone-3-glucuronide-BSA. Available clones: 8A3 (Rat, IgG2a), 155B3.

    Estrone-glucuronide is the dominant metabolite of estradiol. Used as one reference method for determining ovulation.

                References: Geoff Barnard, Fortune Kohen. 1998. Monitoring ovarian function by the simultaneous time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay of two urinary steroid metabolites. Clin Chem 44:7 1520–1528.

    Barnard G1, Kohen F, Mikola H, L?vgren T. 1989. Measurement of estrone-3-glucuronide in urine by rapid, homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Clin Chem. 35(4):555-9.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    138
    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products. Monoclonal antibodies raised against progesterone-7- carboxythio thioether-BSA (clone 2H4, Rat...

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.
    Monoclonal antibodies raised against progesterone-7- carboxythio thioether-BSA (clone 2H4, Rat IgG1) and progesterone-11- hemisuccinate-BSA (clone 1E11, IgG1).
    Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
    Reference: Jozef G. De Boever, Fotune Kohen, Eugene Bosmans. 1994.  Binding of homologous and heterologous isoluminol- and enzyme-labelled  progesterone conjugates to monoclonal antibodies. Analytica Chimica Acta.  290: 239-245

     

    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.

     

    §  138,146 – Monoclonal antibodies to Progesterone          

          Description:  Monoclonal antibodies raised against progesterone-7- carboxythio thioether-BSA (clone 2H4, Rat IgG1) and progesterone-11- hemisuccinate-BSA (clone 1E11, IgG1).

    Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

          Reference: Jozef G. De Boever, Fotune Kohen, Eugene Bosmans. 1994.      Binding of homologous and heterologous isoluminol- and enzyme-labelled   progesterone conjugates to monoclonal antibodies. Analytica Chimica Acta.    290: 239-245


     

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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    186
    A DNP-specific murine IgE monoclonal antibody Description: Hybridoma line producing large amounts of reaginic (IgE) anti-DNP monoclonal antibody (clone SPE-7), which was generated by the fusion of splenic lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice and the NSI plasmacytoma cell line. The monoclonal reaginic antibody...

    A DNP-specific murine IgE monoclonal antibody

    Description: Hybridoma line producing large amounts of reaginic (IgE) anti-DNP monoclonal antibody (clone SPE-7), which was generated by the fusion of splenic lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice and the NSI plasmacytoma cell line. The monoclonal reaginic antibody binds to mast cells or rat basophilic leukemia cells and, upon binding of DNP-protein, triggers an anaphylactic reaction.

    Reference: Eshhar Z, Ofarim M, Waks T. 1980. Generation of hybridomas secreting murine reaginic antibodies of anti-DNP specificity. J Immunol 124(2):775-80.

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    • Prof. Zelig Eshhar
    117
    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry. Leukotrienes:   Drugs: §  117 – Monoclonal antibody to Digoxin         Description: Rat...

    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs

    May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry.

    Leukotrienes:

     

    Drugs:

    §  117 – Monoclonal antibody to Digoxin

            Description: Rat monoclonal antibodies raised against Digoxin.

            Available clone: 10F10, IgG1.

    Digoxin is a purified cardiac glycoside similar to Digitoxin extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    173
    181 - Monoclonal antibody to Galectin-8 Description: Monoclonal antibody to Galectin-8 (clone 106.1). Galectin-8 is a secreted, integrin-binding protein, part of a mammalian lectins family.  Galectin-8, also known as Prostate Cancer Tumor Antigen-1 (PCTA-1) is highly expressed in human prostate cancer...

    181 - Monoclonal antibody to Galectin-8

    Description: Monoclonal antibody to Galectin-8 (clone 106.1).

    Galectin-8 is a secreted, integrin-binding protein, part of a mammalian lectins family.  Galectin-8, also known as Prostate Cancer Tumor Antigen-1 (PCTA-1) is highly expressed in human prostate cancer.  It was shown to trigger the transcription of a unique set of genes, some of which are associated with bone remodeling and prostate cancer progression.

    Reference: Levy Y, Arbel-Goren R, Hadari YR, Eshhar S, Ronen D, Elhanany E, Geiger B, Zick Y. 2001. Galectin-8 functions as a matricellular modulator of cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 276(33):31285-95.

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    259
    259 - Monoclonal antibody to Caspr Description: Monoclonal antibody to Caspr (Mab275), raised against the extracellular domain of Caspr. Caspr is a contactin-associated protein, part of the neurexin family of proteins. It lies in the paranodal section of the myelin sheath and has a role in myelin...

    259 - Monoclonal antibody to Caspr

    Description: Monoclonal antibody to Caspr (Mab275), raised against the extracellular domain of Caspr.

    Caspr is a contactin-associated protein, part of the neurexin family of proteins. It lies in the paranodal section of the myelin sheath and has a role in myelin sheath attachment along with contactin. May be glycosylated.

    Reference: Poliak S1, Gollan L, Martinez R, Custer A, Einheber S, Salzer JL, Trimmer JS, Shrager P, Peles E. 1999. Caspr2, a new member of the neurexin superfamily, is localized at the juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons and associates with K+ channels. Neuron. 24(4):1037-47.

     

    Tech # 1269

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    • Prof. Elior Peles

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