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1381

Applications


The new method for detecting irregularities has many applications which include:

  1. Detecting suspicious and/or salient behaviors in video
  2. Attention and saliency in images
  3. Detecting irregular tissue in medical images
  4. Automatic visual inspection for quality assurance (e.g., detecting defects in goods)
  5. Generating a video summary/synopsis
  6. Intelligent fast forward
  7. Non-visual data

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have developed a new method for detecting irregularities based only on few regular examples, without any assumed models. In the new method the validity of data is determined as a process of constructing a puzzle: one tries to compose a new observed image region or a new video segment (''the query'') using chunks of data (''pieces of puzzle'') extracted from previous visual examples (''the database''). Regions in the observed data which can be composed using large contiguous chunks of data from the database are considered very likely, whereas regions in the observed data which cannot be composed from the database (or can be composed, but only using small fragmented pieces) are regarded as unlikely/suspicious. The problem is posed as an inference process in a probabilistic graphical model. The invention also includes an efficient algorithm for detecting irregularities. Moreover, the same method can also be used for detecting irregularities/anomalies within data without any prior examples, by learning the notion of regularity/irregularity directly from the query data itself.

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  • Prof. Michal Irani
1448
A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes. Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and...

A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes.

Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and chemical systems (e.g. proteins). Synthesis of amides is mostly based on activated acid derivatives or rearrangement reactions induced by an acid or base, which often produce toxic chemical waste and involve tedious procedures. Therefore, an efficient synthesis that avoids wasteful use of coupling reagents or corrosive acidic and basic media is highly desirable. The current technology allows for the clean production of amides from amines and alcohols.

Applications


  • Production of amides for various applications (plastic and rubber industry, paper industry, pharmaceutical intermediates, etc.)

  • Use of the liberated hydrogen (e.g. for the production of ammonia)


Advantages


  • Clean and selective procedure

  • Environment friendly reaction (no base or acid promoters are required, no carboxylic acid derivatives, such as acid chlorides, are needed)

  • Amides and molecular hydrogen are produced in high yields and high turnover numbers directly from alcohols in one step

  • The liberated hydrogen can be used for different applications

  • Formation of a variety of amides


Technology's Essence


Amide formation is a fundamental reaction in chemical synthesis. Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid derivative with an amine. Instead of using carboxylic acid derivative, in the present invention the amide motif is generated by direct acylation of amines with alcohols. This is possible through the use of a unique catalyst. This method enables the simple and elegant production of amide polymers and industrially important amides.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1102
A new high-yield method for producing aryl alkenes. Catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation by C-H activation is a topic of much current interest. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of synthetically useful catalytic addition of arenes to alkenes to give the saturated...

A new high-yield method for producing aryl alkenes. Catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation by C-H activation is a topic of much current interest. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of synthetically useful catalytic addition of arenes to alkenes to give the saturated aryl alkenes. Catalytic oxidative coupling to give aryl alkenes, in which the double bond is preserved, is a highly desirable goal. Such a reaction, which does not require the utilization of a reactive substituent and does not produce waste, may have an advantage over other methods for the preparation of aromatic alkenes. While good catalytic activity was achieved with some alkenes, acrylates resulted in low activity. Furthermore, the use of peroxide oxidants and acetic acid solvent in these systems is problematic from the industrial point of view. The present invention consists of a novel oxidative coupling of arenes with alkenes to yield aryl alkenes, in the presence of ruthenium or osmium compounds as catalysts.

Applications


  • Preparation of various aryl alkenes, which are useful intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries

Advantages


  • There is no need for acid solvent or a peroxide
  • Much lower pressure of CO may be used compared to other methods

Technology's Essence


In the outlined technology it was discovered that aryl alkenes can be produced by reaction of arenes with alkenes in the presence of ruthenium or osmium compounds as catalysts. The reaction can be carried out in the presence of molecular oxygen (O2) as the oxidant. In the absence of O2 the alkene itself serves as the oxidant. For example, reaction of benzene with methyl acrylate and O2 produces methyl cinnamate and water. In the absence of O2 methyl cinnamate and methyl propionate are formed.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1506
A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products. Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these...

A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products.

Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these systems are weather and time-dependent. Additionally, most of the geographic areas best suited for harvesting these resources are remote from population centers. Therefore the need for a reliable method to store and transport renewable energy is clear.

CO can be easily converted into methanol, which is one of the major chemical raw materials and can by itself be used as fuel for diesel engines and the energy source for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).

At present no reliable method of CO2 to CO reduction is available. Either using low temperatures which leads to low thermodynamic efficiency (<60%), Requires precious metals for electrodes and results in toxic byproducts, or using high temperatures which Requires pure CO2 input and Produces a mixture of CO2 and CO.

The current technology describes an efficient, flexible, continues method for production of CO at high temperatures (900oC) without any byproducts or toxic materials.

Applications


  • Production of CO from CO2
  • Easy conversion into methanol

Advantages


·         No precious (Pt, Ag, Au, Pd) metals required

·         No hazardous chemicals involved, no pollution

·         Continuous operation is possible

·         One can use flue gas as a source

·         Capture of CO2 from air is possible

·         The system is very compact>20 kW/m3

·         Operation conditions are very flexible

·         The process fits existing infrastructure

·         CO can be easily converted into liquid fuel (CH3OH)


Technology's Essence


The outlined technology overcomes the basic problems of CO production by using molten Li2CO3 as the electrolyte, a Ti container (will not undergo corrosion), Ti cathode (does not catalyze decomposition of CO), and a graphite anode (no chemical reaction with Li2CO3). At 900°C and current density of 0.05-2 A/cm2, this unique system enables a thermodynamic efficiency close to 100%, continues production of CO – efficiently separating CO2 to CO and O2.

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1263
"Spin-optics", a new method for controlling electric current by manipulating electron spin-orbit interaction, can be used in semiconductors to achieve a wider spectrum of functionality similar to that achieved with polarized light. This method may be used for ultra-fast spin-based transistors.

"Spin-optics", a new method for controlling electric current by manipulating electron spin-orbit interaction, can be used in semiconductors to achieve a wider spectrum of functionality similar to that achieved with polarized light. This method may be used for ultra-fast spin-based transistors.

Applications


  • Ultra-fast spin-based field effect transistor (spin-FET) for communications, computing, and defense applications.
  • Nano- and micro-electronic semiconductor devices for polarizing, filtering, switching, guiding, storing, spin detecting and focusing the current carriers.
  • Devices for signal splitting and wide-angle sparging of electrons.

  • Advantages


    • Use of Nou-magnetic semiconductor materials
    • Creation of spin polarize current

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered a novel method for controlling and manipulating the propagation of electrons in semiconductors with spin-orbit interaction by acting on the spin polarization of the electrons. It was found that when the spin-orbit coupling strength in the semiconductor is locally varying, electrons of different spin polarizations deflect by different angles at the region of the spin-orbit inhomogeneity. The spin-orbit coupling can be tuned locally and dynamically by applying bias voltage with gates. With suitable angle of incidence of electrons, one spin polarization either can pass through the region of inhomogeneity or totally reflected, in analogy to the total internal reflection phenomenon in optics. In fact, this new approach to spintronics is similar to manipulating polarized light in optical technologies. With this approach (termed "spin-optics") it is possible to manipulate the current carriers in semiconductors (electrons or holes) to achieve the whole spectrum of functionality used in optics of the polarized light, e.g., spin polarizing, spin filtering, switching, guiding as well as spin-based field effect transistor (spin-FET).

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    • Prof. Alexander Finkelstein
    1394
    An efficient method to reduce CO2 concentration. Climate change is one of the most urgent subjects worldwide, with implications affecting the entire population of the planet. One of the major aspects influencing global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Most of the...

    An efficient method to reduce CO2 concentration. Climate change is one of the most urgent subjects worldwide, with implications affecting the entire population of the planet. One of the major aspects influencing global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Most of the greenhouse gases emitted due to human activity are related to burning of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, gasoline, natural gas) with the major component being CO2. Furthermore, increased CO2 emissions (due to increased world energy consumption) are expected as the living standard improves in many parts of the world. Consequently, to enable drastic reductions in CO2 emissions it is becoming necessary to capture and sequester CO2. The outlined technology involves a simple precipitation reaction using CO2 to form a stable and inert carbonate compound using that can be stored or discarded.

    Applications


    • In situ and ex situ CO2 sequestration, by conversion to carbonate rock
    • In subsurface systems, carbonate precipitation can reduce hydraulic conductivity, thus mitigating movement of saltwater or groundwater contaminants

    Advantages


    • Long term stability
    • Vast capacity of field sites
    • Potentially economically viable
    • Potential for treatment of waste air and flue gases
    • May overcome the problem of CO2 escape during or after sequestration

    Technology's Essence


    This technology consists of a new method for sequestering CO2 in subsurface geological formations, by converting it into a stable mineral form. CO2 in water results in chemical equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (CO32-). This equilibrium is very sensitive to changes in pH, thus under basic conditions equilibrium considerations favor precipitation of HCO3- and CO32- as carbonate minerals, while under acidic conditions there is release of CO2 by dissolution and dissociation of carbonates. The method can also be adapted for above-ground operation.

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    • Prof. Brian Berkowitz
    1451
    A monoclonal antibody against GluR3B, a peptide found in epilepsy patients, and especially in patients suffering from intractable, resistant forms of the disease, could be used in diagnosis kits as well as in drug development for this form of "autoimmune epilepsy".

    A monoclonal antibody against GluR3B, a peptide found in epilepsy patients, and especially in patients suffering from intractable, resistant forms of the disease, could be used in diagnosis kits as well as in drug development for this form of "autoimmune epilepsy".

    Applications


    1. Producing a new kit for epilepsy patients, able to detect GluR3b Ab's and thus GluR3-mediated neuropathology
    The anti GluR3B monoclonal Ab could be used for developing a new diagnostic kit to detect neuropathogenic human anti-GluR3B in serum and CSF of patients with epilepsy. The patient's GluR3B Ab's would compete and displace the GluR3B mAb's of its ligand: the GluR3B peptide. The presence of GluR3B Ab's in a patient, would indicate that autoimmunity against GluR3 may underlie the patient's neuropathology and a) would suggest the initiation of an immune-based therapy b) prevent useless and dangerous brain surgery c) prevent non-effective medication.

    2. Drug design for GluR3-mediated neuropathology
    The unique GluR3B monoclonal antibody could be used to screen a potential drug for 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. The GluR3B monoclonal antibody could be used to screen for a molecule (i.e. Anti-idiotypic antibodies) that would block the GluR3 autoantibodies and their detrimental neuropathological effects.

    3. Research tool for a kaleidoscope of purposes, including:

  • Detection of the GluR3 glutamate receptor subtype on various target cells.
  • Studies of the properties of the Glutamate/AMPA receptor subtype 3.
  • Studies of the Glutamate-liked agonist activity of the GluR3B monoclonal antibody, and of the GluR3 receptor ion channel gating properties.
  • Production of an animal model of 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'.
  • Studies of neuronal death caused by binding of the GluR3 autoantibody to glutamate/AMPA receptors.
  • Studies of behavioral impairments caused by binding of the GluR3 autoantibody to glutamate/AMPA receptors.

  • Technology's Essence


    Scientists from the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered a unique anti-GluR3B monoclonal antibody Glu149/29/61.

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    • Prof. Vivian I. Teichberg
    • Prof. Vivian I. Teichberg
    1124
    Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in...

    Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in real-time.

    SPR and LSPR technologies are broadly used in efficient real-time detection and quantification of biomolecules in research environments; however these technologies are too complicated, cumbersome and expensive for routine applications. This novel technology combines real-time, high sensitivity and accuracy of LSPR with low cost and ease of use of other optical assays, such as ELISA.

    The invention comprises the LSPR transducer element of a gold-island film biosensor, which does not suffer shortcomings such as extreme temperature sensitivity. The gold island film is rapidly integrated into lab consumables via a novel fabrication method, which produces a robust system for high-throughput molecular diagnostics.

    Applications


    • Point of care, real time diagnostics of chemical and biological substances.
    • Environmental watch: monitoring air or water pollution, testing for food poisoning.
    • Chemical warfare: detection of chemical agents and explosives.
    • Real-time monitoring of marine biofouling or industry corrosion processes.

    Advantages


    • Simple operation, versatile and inexpensive method to imbed sensor in standard lab consumables.
    • High-throughput label-free detection with sensitivity comparable to that of SPR.
    • Uses cheap, disposable samples.
    • Can be combined with a variety of biosensing technologies.

    Technology's Essence


    The method involves evaporation of ultrathin (?10 nm) gold films onto inert transparent substrates (e.g., glass, plastic) leading to the formation of a layer of gold islands. Gold-island films provide unique optical properties. Such films show a localized surface plasmon (LSP) absorption peak much less sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The LSP absorption band changes upon binding of various molecules to the surface. The binding process can be followed quantitatively by measuring the changes in the gold SP absorption. Selective sensing using the LSPR method can be achieved by applying a thin layer containing receptor molecules onto the gold island film, and measuring changes in the SP absorption upon binding of a specific analyte to the receptor layer

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    • Prof. Israel Rubinstein
    252
    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products. Anti-idiotypic antibody raised against anti-progesterone-7- BSA.KLH conjugate (clone 2H4)....

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.
    Anti-idiotypic antibody raised against anti-progesterone-7- BSA.KLH conjugate (clone 2H4). Available clones: 15F11 (betatypic), 2E11  (alphatypic).
    Reference: Fort?ne Kohen, Josef de Boever, Geoff Barnard. 1996.  Noncompetitive immunoassay for small molecules. Immunoassay. Pages  405-421.

    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-steroids:

    §  252-253 - Anti-idiotypic antibodies against anti-progesterone   

          Description: Anti-idiotypic antibody raised against anti-progesterone-7-     BSA.KLH conjugate (clone 2H4). Available clones: 15F11 (betatypic), 2E11 (alphatypic).

                Reference: Fort?ne Kohen, Josef de Boever, Geoff Barnard. 1996. Noncompetitive immunoassay for small molecules. Immunoassay. Pages 405-421.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    101
    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry. Leukotrienes: §  101 – Monoclonal antibody to LTC4 Description: Rat monoclonal antibodies raised...

    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs

    May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry.

    Leukotrienes:

    §  101 – Monoclonal antibody to LTC4

    Description: Rat monoclonal antibodies raised against Leukotriene C4-KLH.

    Available clone:  6E7 (IgG1).

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators in inflammation, inducing

    smooth muscle contractions and increased capillary permeability.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    315
    315 - TBBL (5-thiobutyl butyrolactone) Description: TBBL (5-thiobutyl butyrolactone) is a chromogenic lipo-lactone substrate for Serum paraoxonases (PONs), used for sera tests of PONs activity, based on their lactonase activity.  The primary enzymatic reaction produces an unstable intermediate that...

    315 - TBBL (5-thiobutyl butyrolactone)

    Description: TBBL (5-thiobutyl butyrolactone) is a chromogenic lipo-lactone substrate for Serum paraoxonases (PONs), used for sera tests of PONs activity, based on their lactonase activity.  The primary enzymatic reaction produces an unstable intermediate that rapidly collapses to release a fluorescent/chromogenic moiety.

    Can be used with a variety of biological samples, for example, serum, cells or cell lysates and suitable for high-throughput screens.

    Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein(HDL)-associated enzyme with antiatherogenic and detoxification properties that hydrolyzes a wide range of substrates and exhibits a wide range of physiologically important activities, including cholesterol efflux, drug metabolism and the detoxification of Ops (organophosphates).

    Reference: Khersonsky O, Tawfik DS. 2006. Chromogenic and fluorogenic assays for the lactonase activity of serum paraoxonases. Chembiochem. 7(1):49-53.

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    • Prof. Dan S. Tawfik
    147
    Monoclonal antibodies raised against bhCG. Available clones: 1D5 (IgG1), 1E11 (IgG2b).Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception. Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones Due to their high...

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against bhCG. Available clones: 1D5 (IgG1), 1E11 (IgG2b).
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception.

    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.

    Peptide Hormones:

    §  147-148 - Monoclonal antibody to hCG

    Description: Monoclonal antibodies raised against bhCG. Available clones: 1D5 (IgG1), 1E11 (IgG2b).

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    274
    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.   §  127, 274, 141 – Monoclonal...

    Monoclonal antibodies for peptide and steroid hormones

    Due to their high specificity and sensitivity these antibodies may be applicable for research, diagnosis and therapeutics. A particular use may be quality control of industrial manufacturing of food products.

     

    §  127, 274, 141 – Monoclonal antibodies to estradiol         

          Description: Monoclonal antibodies raised against oestradiol-6-     carboxymethyl oxime-BSA. Available clones: 2F9 (Rat, IgG2a), 15 (IgG2b),    8D9 (IgG2a).

    Estradiol is a sex hormone, which has not only a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, but also affects other organs, including the bones. In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissues of the reproductive organs.

                References: De Boever J, Kohen F, Usanachitt C, Vandekerckhove D, Leyseele D, Vandewalle L. 1986. Direct chemiluminescence immunoassay for estradiol in serum. Clin Chem. 32(10):1895-900.

                S?mjen D1, Amir-Zaltsman Y, Mor G, Gayer B, Lichter S, Nevo N, Kohen F. 1998. A monoclonal antibody to oestradiol potentiates the stimulation of the specific activity of the brain type creatine kinase by oestrogen in vivo and in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 64(5-6):297-304.

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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    130
    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry. Leukotrienes:   Veterinary drugs: §  130 - Anti-idiotypic antibody against anti-Sulfamethazine...

    Monoclonal antibodies for Isoflavones, leukotrienes, biotin and human and veterinary drugs

    May be used for monitoring drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry.

    Leukotrienes:

     

    Veterinary drugs:

    §  130 - Anti-idiotypic antibody against anti-Sulfamethazine

                                  Description: Betetypic anti-idiotypic antibody raised against anti Sulfamethazine –KLH (clone 21C7). Available clone: 12E12.

    Reference: Fortune Kohen , Batya Gayer , Yehudith Amir-Zaltsman &

    Michael O'Keeffe. 2000. Generation of an anti-idiotypic antibody as a surrogateLigand for sulfamethazine in immunoassay procedures, food and agricultural. Immunology 12:3 193-201.

     
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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    182
    Monoclonal antibodies to IgE Description: Rat monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies that was generated by fusion of plasmacytoma (84.1C) or myeloma (EM953) cells with splenocytes of rat immunized with purified murine IgE mAb. The antibodies react with various IgE mAb of different specificities and not with...

    Monoclonal antibodies to IgE

    Description: Rat monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies that was generated by fusion of plasmacytoma (84.1C) or myeloma (EM953) cells with splenocytes of rat immunized with purified murine IgE mAb. The antibodies react with various IgE mAb of different specificities and not with immunoglobulins of other classes, and recognize an epitope on the murine Fc epsilon region.

    Were shown to block IgE-Fc?R interactions and inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. 

    Clone 84.1c recognizes a site on IgE, which is identical or very close to the Fc?R binding site. May be used for detection and manipulation of the IgE response in mice.

    Reference:  Schwarzbaum S, Nissim A, Alkalay I, Ghozi MC, Schindler DG, Bergman Y, Eshhar Z. 1989. Mapping of murine IgE epitopes involved in IgE-Fc epsilon receptor interactions. Eur J Immunol 19(6):1015-23.

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    • Prof. Zelig Eshhar

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