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Scientist
1507
One-step synthesis of primary amines from alcohols and ammonia under mild conditions.Amines are widely used in the production of numerous products for multiple industries and their use is expected to increase. Global amines market is expected to reach over $14 billion by 2020, with an average annual...

One-step synthesis of primary amines from alcohols and ammonia under mild conditions.
Amines are widely used in the production of numerous products for multiple industries and their use is expected to increase. Global amines market is expected to reach over $14 billion by 2020, with an average annual growth of 3.5%.
Primary amines are most useful in the larger markets of ethanolamines and fatty amines.
Current synthetic methods require harsh reaction conditions, are non-specific and generate toxic waste. The outlined technology utilizes a novel catalyst to synthesize primary amines in a simple single-step fashion directly from alcohols and ammonia.

Applications


• Production of primary amines for numerous industries (agrochemicals, surfactants, personal care, water treatment, fine chemicals, plastics, dyes, pigments, food additives and pharmaceuticals)

Advantages


  • Mild reaction conditions
  • Single step synthesis
  • High yields
  • No solvent required
  • No toxic reagents or by-products
  • Ecologically and economically beneficial

Technology's Essence


Amines are a very important family of compounds used in multiple industries. The presented technology uses selective catalytic synthesis of primary amines from primary alcohols and ammonia. This simple, one-step, easily applicable reaction delivers primary amines in good yields, in addition to valuable environmental and economic advantages.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1381

Applications


The new method for detecting irregularities has many applications which include:

  1. Detecting suspicious and/or salient behaviors in video
  2. Attention and saliency in images
  3. Detecting irregular tissue in medical images
  4. Automatic visual inspection for quality assurance (e.g., detecting defects in goods)
  5. Generating a video summary/synopsis
  6. Intelligent fast forward
  7. Non-visual data

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have developed a new method for detecting irregularities based only on few regular examples, without any assumed models. In the new method the validity of data is determined as a process of constructing a puzzle: one tries to compose a new observed image region or a new video segment (''the query'') using chunks of data (''pieces of puzzle'') extracted from previous visual examples (''the database''). Regions in the observed data which can be composed using large contiguous chunks of data from the database are considered very likely, whereas regions in the observed data which cannot be composed from the database (or can be composed, but only using small fragmented pieces) are regarded as unlikely/suspicious. The problem is posed as an inference process in a probabilistic graphical model. The invention also includes an efficient algorithm for detecting irregularities. Moreover, the same method can also be used for detecting irregularities/anomalies within data without any prior examples, by learning the notion of regularity/irregularity directly from the query data itself.

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  • Prof. Michal Irani
1102
A new high-yield method for producing aryl alkenes. Catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation by C-H activation is a topic of much current interest. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of synthetically useful catalytic addition of arenes to alkenes to give the saturated...

A new high-yield method for producing aryl alkenes. Catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation by C-H activation is a topic of much current interest. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of synthetically useful catalytic addition of arenes to alkenes to give the saturated aryl alkenes. Catalytic oxidative coupling to give aryl alkenes, in which the double bond is preserved, is a highly desirable goal. Such a reaction, which does not require the utilization of a reactive substituent and does not produce waste, may have an advantage over other methods for the preparation of aromatic alkenes. While good catalytic activity was achieved with some alkenes, acrylates resulted in low activity. Furthermore, the use of peroxide oxidants and acetic acid solvent in these systems is problematic from the industrial point of view. The present invention consists of a novel oxidative coupling of arenes with alkenes to yield aryl alkenes, in the presence of ruthenium or osmium compounds as catalysts.

Applications


  • Preparation of various aryl alkenes, which are useful intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries

Advantages


  • There is no need for acid solvent or a peroxide
  • Much lower pressure of CO may be used compared to other methods

Technology's Essence


In the outlined technology it was discovered that aryl alkenes can be produced by reaction of arenes with alkenes in the presence of ruthenium or osmium compounds as catalysts. The reaction can be carried out in the presence of molecular oxygen (O2) as the oxidant. In the absence of O2 the alkene itself serves as the oxidant. For example, reaction of benzene with methyl acrylate and O2 produces methyl cinnamate and water. In the absence of O2 methyl cinnamate and methyl propionate are formed.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1461
Bidirectional Similarity offers a new approach to summarization of visual data (images and video) based on optimization of well defined similarity measure. Common visual summarization methods (mainly scaling and cropping) suffer from significant deficiencies related to image quality and loss of...

Bidirectional Similarity offers a new approach to summarization of visual data (images and video) based on optimization of well defined similarity measure.

Common visual summarization methods (mainly scaling and cropping) suffer from significant deficiencies related to image quality and loss of important data. Many attempts have been made to overcome these problems, however, success was very limited and neither has become commercially applicable.

Using an optimization problem approach and state-of-the-art algorithms, our method provides superior summarization of visual data as well as a measure to determine similarity, which together provides a basis for a wide range of applications in image and video processing.

Applications


The technology can be utilized in any application where an image size is changed or were similarity of images is important. Sample applications include:

  • Image processing software (as an added-on feature)

  • Resizing software

  • Creation of Thumbnails

  • Adjustment of images to different screen sizes (TV-cellular etc.)

  • Optimization of space-time patches in video processing

  • Image montages

  • Automatic image & video cropping

  • Images synthesis, photo reshuffling and many more


Advantages


While Bidirectional Similarity summarization will not replace existing technologies in all applications, it enjoys significant advantages that will offer better results in many of them. Among its advantages, the Bidirectional Similarity summarization:

  • Provides better resolution and in many cases reduces distortion compared to scaling
  • Reduces (or avoids) loss of important data compared to cropping
  • Allows importance-based summarization even when important information is widespread and hard to define
  • Uses quantitative objective similarity measure
  • Offers a generic tool for different image processing applications (synthesis, montage, reshuffling etc.)

Technology's Essence


Bidirectional Similarity Summarization is a patent-pending image and video processing method, which maximizes “completeness” and “coherence” between images and videos, using a measure for quantifying how “good” a visual summary is.

The algorithm uses and iterative process, gradually reducing the image size, while keeping all source patches in the target image, without introducing visual artifacts that are not in the input data. Using a Similarity Index, the algorithm identifies redundant information and compromise the “less important” data while generating the required target image or video.

The Similarity Index, which stands in the heart of the Bidirectional Similarity summarization algorithm, can be utilized by its own, as an objective function within other optimization processes, as well as in comparing the quality of visual summaries generated by different methods

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  • Prof. Michal Irani
1263
"Spin-optics", a new method for controlling electric current by manipulating electron spin-orbit interaction, can be used in semiconductors to achieve a wider spectrum of functionality similar to that achieved with polarized light. This method may be used for ultra-fast spin-based transistors.

"Spin-optics", a new method for controlling electric current by manipulating electron spin-orbit interaction, can be used in semiconductors to achieve a wider spectrum of functionality similar to that achieved with polarized light. This method may be used for ultra-fast spin-based transistors.

Applications


  • Ultra-fast spin-based field effect transistor (spin-FET) for communications, computing, and defense applications.
  • Nano- and micro-electronic semiconductor devices for polarizing, filtering, switching, guiding, storing, spin detecting and focusing the current carriers.
  • Devices for signal splitting and wide-angle sparging of electrons.

  • Advantages


    • Use of Nou-magnetic semiconductor materials
    • Creation of spin polarize current

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered a novel method for controlling and manipulating the propagation of electrons in semiconductors with spin-orbit interaction by acting on the spin polarization of the electrons. It was found that when the spin-orbit coupling strength in the semiconductor is locally varying, electrons of different spin polarizations deflect by different angles at the region of the spin-orbit inhomogeneity. The spin-orbit coupling can be tuned locally and dynamically by applying bias voltage with gates. With suitable angle of incidence of electrons, one spin polarization either can pass through the region of inhomogeneity or totally reflected, in analogy to the total internal reflection phenomenon in optics. In fact, this new approach to spintronics is similar to manipulating polarized light in optical technologies. With this approach (termed "spin-optics") it is possible to manipulate the current carriers in semiconductors (electrons or holes) to achieve the whole spectrum of functionality used in optics of the polarized light, e.g., spin polarizing, spin filtering, switching, guiding as well as spin-based field effect transistor (spin-FET).

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    • Prof. Alexander Finkelstein
    1518
    Improved immunotherapy for breast cancer. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ErbB-2/HER2 growth factor receptor, or to its sibling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), prolong survival of cancer patients, especially when combined with cytotoxic therapies. However, low effectiveness of...

    Improved immunotherapy for breast cancer.

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ErbB-2/HER2 growth factor receptor, or to its sibling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), prolong survival of cancer patients, especially when combined with cytotoxic therapies. However, low effectiveness of therapeutic mAbs and the evolution of patient resistance call for improvements. Furthermore, the response to the clinically approved monotherapy of Herceptin (a humanized mAb directed against ErbB-2), is relatively low (~15%) and short lived (median duration, 9 months). Therefore, there is a need to improve the therapeutic treatment against this receptor. The present technology enhances the therapeutic activity of anti-ErB-2 receptor antibodies, by combining two or more epitope-distinct antibodies.

    Applications


    • Improved treatment of ErbB-2-overexpressing tumors (e.g. in breast and ovary cancers).


    Advantages


    • May enhance patient response and delay acquisition of resistance.
    • Enhancement of therapeutic efficacy and synergy with chemotherapy.

    Technology's Essence


    Optimal selection of mAbs for cancer immunotherapy may improve its therapeutic potential. The outlined technology addresses an emerging strategy, which enhances the therapeutic activity of anti-receptor antibodies by combining two mAbs engaging distinct epitopes. It was demonstrated that pairs of anti-ErbB-2 mAbs better inhibit ErbB-2-overexpressing tumors than the respective individual mAbs, both in vitro and in vivo.

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    • Prof. Yosef Yarden
    1394
    An efficient method to reduce CO2 concentration. Climate change is one of the most urgent subjects worldwide, with implications affecting the entire population of the planet. One of the major aspects influencing global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Most of the...

    An efficient method to reduce CO2 concentration. Climate change is one of the most urgent subjects worldwide, with implications affecting the entire population of the planet. One of the major aspects influencing global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Most of the greenhouse gases emitted due to human activity are related to burning of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, gasoline, natural gas) with the major component being CO2. Furthermore, increased CO2 emissions (due to increased world energy consumption) are expected as the living standard improves in many parts of the world. Consequently, to enable drastic reductions in CO2 emissions it is becoming necessary to capture and sequester CO2. The outlined technology involves a simple precipitation reaction using CO2 to form a stable and inert carbonate compound using that can be stored or discarded.

    Applications


    • In situ and ex situ CO2 sequestration, by conversion to carbonate rock
    • In subsurface systems, carbonate precipitation can reduce hydraulic conductivity, thus mitigating movement of saltwater or groundwater contaminants

    Advantages


    • Long term stability
    • Vast capacity of field sites
    • Potentially economically viable
    • Potential for treatment of waste air and flue gases
    • May overcome the problem of CO2 escape during or after sequestration

    Technology's Essence


    This technology consists of a new method for sequestering CO2 in subsurface geological formations, by converting it into a stable mineral form. CO2 in water results in chemical equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (CO32-). This equilibrium is very sensitive to changes in pH, thus under basic conditions equilibrium considerations favor precipitation of HCO3- and CO32- as carbonate minerals, while under acidic conditions there is release of CO2 by dissolution and dissociation of carbonates. The method can also be adapted for above-ground operation.

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    • Prof. Brian Berkowitz
    1124
    Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in...

    Label-free detection and monitoring of target molecules, which can be conducted using standard lab equipment. This new method of optical analysis is effective in monitoring the binding of chemically or physically adsorbed molecules, in liquid or gas phase, with measurements carried out continuously in real-time.

    SPR and LSPR technologies are broadly used in efficient real-time detection and quantification of biomolecules in research environments; however these technologies are too complicated, cumbersome and expensive for routine applications. This novel technology combines real-time, high sensitivity and accuracy of LSPR with low cost and ease of use of other optical assays, such as ELISA.

    The invention comprises the LSPR transducer element of a gold-island film biosensor, which does not suffer shortcomings such as extreme temperature sensitivity. The gold island film is rapidly integrated into lab consumables via a novel fabrication method, which produces a robust system for high-throughput molecular diagnostics.

    Applications


    • Point of care, real time diagnostics of chemical and biological substances.
    • Environmental watch: monitoring air or water pollution, testing for food poisoning.
    • Chemical warfare: detection of chemical agents and explosives.
    • Real-time monitoring of marine biofouling or industry corrosion processes.

    Advantages


    • Simple operation, versatile and inexpensive method to imbed sensor in standard lab consumables.
    • High-throughput label-free detection with sensitivity comparable to that of SPR.
    • Uses cheap, disposable samples.
    • Can be combined with a variety of biosensing technologies.

    Technology's Essence


    The method involves evaporation of ultrathin (?10 nm) gold films onto inert transparent substrates (e.g., glass, plastic) leading to the formation of a layer of gold islands. Gold-island films provide unique optical properties. Such films show a localized surface plasmon (LSP) absorption peak much less sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The LSP absorption band changes upon binding of various molecules to the surface. The binding process can be followed quantitatively by measuring the changes in the gold SP absorption. Selective sensing using the LSPR method can be achieved by applying a thin layer containing receptor molecules onto the gold island film, and measuring changes in the SP absorption upon binding of a specific analyte to the receptor layer

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    • Prof. Israel Rubinstein
    1481
    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of nanoscale magnetic and thermal characterization tools in order to address rapidly evolving fields, such as nanomagnetism, spintronics and energy-efficient computing. The requirements from these tools include high sensitivity and...

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of nanoscale magnetic and thermal characterization tools in order to address rapidly evolving fields, such as nanomagnetism, spintronics and energy-efficient computing. The requirements from these tools include high sensitivity and high spatial resolution to enable local detection and accurate measurements of extremely low signals. For example, the energy dissipation mechanism in quantum systems is related to preservation of quantum information, which is of particular importance in the field of quantum computing. Available local magnetic imaging methods suffer from low sensitivity and in some cases, low spatial resolution. On the other hand, energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the nanometer scale and existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for studying quantum systems and are unsuitable for low temperature operation.

    A novel sensor device comprising a nanoscale superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was developed by Prof. Zeldov at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The fabrication method enables the miniaturization of the sensor to an effective diameter of below 50 nm and its integration onto the apex of a very sharp tip that is ideally suited for scanning probe microscopy. The extremely small size of the SQUID-on-tip sensor and the ability to approach very close to the sample surface result in nano-metric spatial resolution and a very sensitivity.

    Applications


    ·         Scanning probe microscopy for magnetic and thermal characterization

    ·         Inspection and probing equipment for quantum computing


    Advantages


    • Simple fabrication process

    • High field sensitivity and bandwidth

    • Nanoscale sensors (down to 46 nm in diameter)

    • Tip-sample distance can be as close as a few nanometers


    Technology's Essence


    A SQUID is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields, based on superconducting loops. The present invention is a novel sensor device, based on a nanoscale two-junction or multi-junction SQUIDs fabricated on the edge of a sharp tip in a three dimensional geometric configuration. In such a setup, the SQUID can approach the sample to a distance of few nanometers, as opposed to the conventional planar SQUIDs, which results in an extremely high sensitivity.

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    • Prof. Eli Zeldov
    1527
    New peptides for improving the recruitment of stem cells for transplantation. Blood cancers (leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma) are very common: they accounted for nearly 9.5 percent of deaths in the US from cancer in 2009. Stem cell transplantation, which aims to restore the function of the marrow, is an...

    New peptides for improving the recruitment of stem cells for transplantation.

    Blood cancers (leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma) are very common: they accounted for nearly 9.5 percent of deaths in the US from cancer in 2009. Stem cell transplantation, which aims to restore the function of the marrow, is an important therapy for these malignancies. Successful blood and marrow transplant requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), which is done by recruitment of HSPC from the marrow into the blood (mobilization). Currently used clinical procedures to produce stem cell mobilization include administration of G-CSF or GM-CSF, either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy. However, some autologous blood stem cell donors exhibit indifference to currently applied mobilization therapies. Hence, improved methods to mobilize peripheral blood HSPC are warranted. The present invention is directed to novel short peptides of beta-defensins for improving the mobilization of HSPC.

    Applications


    • Rapid and efficient mobilization of HSPC for clinical transplantation
    • Inhibition of malignant cell proliferation and metastasis

    Advantages


    ·         Non-toxic, derived from a physiological molecule of innate host immunity

    ·         Cheap and simple synthesis

    ·         Rapid, robust and preferential mobilization of immature HSPC

    ·         Enhancement of mobilizing efficiency of presently used substances (e.g. G-CSF)

    ·         Dual use of the derivatives


    Technology's Essence


    Beta-defensins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides, a major component of the innate immune system. In a mouse model, two different linear beta-defensin-derived peptides provided a strong and rapid HSPC mobilization, alone and in combination with G-CSF, a cytokine that is the major agent inducing robust mobilization of HSPC. In addition, a cyclic peptide derivative effectively inhibited HSPC mobilization and proliferation, as well as human malignant cell motility in mice. These findings make beta-defensin-derived peptides as promising small molecule candidates for improving current clinical HSPC mobilization protocols, and their cyclic derivatives as promising candidates for reducing cancer cell development and metastasis in patients.

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    • Prof. Tsvee Lapidot
    1441
    New protein as a target to treat B cell-related cancer.Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant disease characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes in the blood, lymphoid organs, and bone marrow, is the second most common type of leukemia in adults, accounting for about 7,000 new cases of...

    New protein as a target to treat B cell-related cancer.
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant disease characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes in the blood, lymphoid organs, and bone marrow, is the second most common type of leukemia in adults, accounting for about 7,000 new cases of leukemia each year. Presently, there is no cure for CLL, and the overall goal of leukemia treatment is to bring about a remission. Therefore, identifying new proteins that may serve as a target for inducing cell death in the malignant cells is highly desirable. The present technology identifies a new regulator protein that is essential for the survival of CLL cells.

    Applications


    • Treatment of CLL, as well as other B cell-related cancers (e.g. gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma), by blocking CD84 activity
    • Diagnosis of CLL

    Advantages


    • Very specific to malignant B cells
    • Diagnosis, and therefore treatment, can be made at early stages of the disease

     


    Technology's Essence


    B cells taken from CLL patients have a high level of the protein CD84. Stimulation of CD84 upregulates the survival of B-CLL. However, inhibition of CD84 activity with a blocking antibody downregulates the expression of another protein which controls B-CLL survival, thus inducing cell death. Therefore, the present invention reveals CD84 as a regulator of B-CLL survival

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    • Prof. Idit Shachar
    1266
    Fast cross-sectioning using multiphoton microscope.  The conventionally used laser-scanning microscopy, confocal and multiphoton microscopy, although being capable of performing optical sectioning, requires a long image acquisition time, tens of milliseconds per section in current commercial systems,...

    Fast cross-sectioning using multiphoton microscope.  The conventionally used laser-scanning microscopy, confocal and multiphoton microscopy, although being capable of performing optical sectioning, requires a long image acquisition time, tens of milliseconds per section in current commercial systems, due to the scanning process. The field of confocal microscopy relies on the idea of point-by-point illumination of a sample and use mechanical scanning in order to collect an image. Multiphoton microscopes offer a different mechanism for optical sectioning and the need for rejecting out-of-focus scattering is practically eliminated. However, the process is efficient only when the peak intensity of the illuminating light is high. Thus there is a growing need to facilitate the multiphoton microscopy imaging of a sample by providing a novel illumination configuration and method of its operation.

    Depth-resolved microscopy has been, for decades, practically synonymous with laser-scanning microscopy. The technique of the present invention provides for full-frame depth-resolved microscopy (or material processing), using an extremely simple setup as well as standard components, aiming at eliminating mechanical scanning across the sample thus making the image acquisition much faster.

     

    Applications


    • Optical system for use in a multi-photon microscope.
    • Material processing, e.g. simultaneous depth-resolved modification of a transparent substrate by femtosecond radiation.

    Advantages


    • The present invention provides for fast imaging/processing of a sample without scanning.
    • The temporal profile of the pulse remains unchanged as it propagates through the sample.
    • Single-shot depth resolved microscopy is able to capture extremely rapid dynamics, up to the nanosecond regime.
    • The setup enables full-frame video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging, simply by gating the CCD intensifier.
    • Enables utilization of structure illumination microscopy.
    • Can be used with practically any multiphoton process.

    Technology's Essence


    The present invention provides the ability for illuminating a region of a sample with dimensions many orders of magnitude larger than a diffraction-limited spot of the imaging lens arrangement used in the microscope. Using this method, full-frame depth-resolved microscopy can be achieved using an extremely simple setup and standard components. the proposed microscope utilizes a pulse manipulator arrangement including a temporal pulse manipulator configured to define a surface, which extends perpendicular to the optical axis of a microscope in the front focal plane of an imaging lens arrangement, and which is patterned to affect trajectories of light components of the input short pulse impinging onto different points of this surface to direct these light components along different optical paths.

    This novel invention is not limited to imaging techniques in general and to microscopy in particular and can also be used for material processing.

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    • Prof. Yaron Silberberg
    1407
    Thermotolerant photosynthetic organisms endure worsening climate conditions such as increased temperatures and higher levels of CO2. These novel organisms maintain photosynthetic activity and growth under a wide temperature range (15-45oC) as opposed to their wild-type counterparts. Thermotolerant...

    Thermotolerant photosynthetic organisms endure worsening climate conditions such as increased temperatures and higher levels of CO2. These novel organisms maintain photosynthetic activity and growth under a wide temperature range (15-45oC) as opposed to their wild-type counterparts.

    Thermotolerant organisms also exhibit higher transparency to light. Photosynthetic efficiency is maintained even though they produce and utilize less chlorophyll molecules; therefore less surface area is required for optimal cultivation. Furthermore, increased CO2 concentrations are preferable for thermotolerant organisms’ efficient photosynthesis.

    The innovative solution discovered at The Weizmann Institute, involves replacement of 1-2 amino acid residues in a protein motif within the D1 protein subunit of Photosystem II (the protein complex responsible for the conversion of solar energy to a useful form of energy by photosynthesis). Such a solution has the potential to provide platforms for food production and sustainable energy in regions with harsh climate conditions that until today, were deemed unfit for cultivation.

    Applications


    • Bacterial platform to produce biomass or materials (e.g. nutraceuticals) in higher temperatures and higher CO2.
    • Food and biofuel production: adaptation of crops to harsh climates.

    Advantages


    • Enhanced Thermal stability and plasticity of the modified organisms to a much broader range than observed for the native organisms.
    • Greater Light penetration (e.g. in ponds) without losing photosynthetic efficiency - thermotolerant organisms maintain efficient activity with less chlorophylls thus allowing greater transmission of light to deeper spaces.
    • Thermotolerant organisms withstand high CO2 concentrations.

    Technology's Essence


    Professor Avigdor Scherz and his team focused on the sequences of the two major protein subunits D1 and D2 found in all purple bacteria PSII reaction centers. Two sites, D1-209 and D1-212, were found to show consistent changes between mesophilic, thermotolerant and thermophilic organisms including cyanobacteria, algae and green plants.

    The sites are positioned in a GXXXG-like structural motif (where G denotes small residues such as Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr) typical of helix-helix interactions. The motif was found at the points of closest contact between the two major protein subunits, D1 and D2. It was shown that mutations in the amino acids within the identified GXXXG-like motif  result in modification of the local flexibility of the reaction center and, consequently, in the induction of thermophilic behavior.

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    • Prof. Avigdor Scherz
    1166
    A series of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring hormone and drug additives in animals grown for the food industry. These include mAbs for peptide hormones, steroid hormones, drugs, leukotrienes, isoflavones, and veterinary drugs.

    A series of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring hormone and drug additives in animals grown for the food industry. These include mAbs for peptide hormones, steroid hormones, drugs, leukotrienes, isoflavones, and veterinary drugs.

    Applications


    Monitoring hormone and drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry.

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have developed a series of mAb against peptide and steroid hormones, isoflavones, and human and veterinary drugs. These antibodies are particularly valuable for monitoring hormone and drug additives in food providing animals. The mAb are available for diagnostics, research, and therapeutics.

    The following mAb are available for licensing:

    (Clones marked with * are available for diagnostic and therapeutic use only).

    Peptide Hormones:
    LH: 4F10
    bFSH: 1G12*, 1H9, 1H7
    FSH: 6H6
    bHCG: 1D5
    bHCG+: 1C7 3F11
    HGH: 1C12*, 1C4*, 5E9, 4E12, 5C3, 1C5, 6G3, 5E6, 2C12

    Steroid Hormones:
    progesterone-11a-HS 1E11*
    progesterone-7a-CET 2H4
    Estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3
    Testosterone-3-CMO 5A4
    Testosterone-3-CMO 5F2*
    Estradiol-6-CMO 8D9*

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-steroids:
    betatypic anti-anti-testosterone 5A4 8G9
    betatypic anti-progesterone 2H4 15F11
    betatypic anti-anti-estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3 7C1
    alphatypic anti-progesterone 2H4 2E11
    betatypic anti-anti-estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3 11C1

    Drugs
    Digoxin 10F10
    RU-486* 8B6*
    Buserelin 8B4
    Medroxy-progesterone-acetate* 1F5*

    Leukotrienes
    LTC4* 6E7

    Biotin
    Biotin-BSA F1

    Isoflavones
    Daidzein 4E4
    Daidzein/daidzin/genistin 2F11
    Estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3
    Genistein/biochanin A 10D8
    Genistein/genistin/daidzin 6E8
    Betatypic anti-anti-genistein 10D8

    Veterinary drugs
    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) 21C7
    Betatypic anti-SMZ 12E12
    4-chloro-androstenedione 14H2
    Virginamycin 486
    Spiramycin 110
    Betatypic anti-anti-spiramycin 133

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    • Dr. Fortune Kohen
    1499
    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy; it is the 4th most common cancer in males and the 9th in females.  The presenting symptom is usually blood in the urine, and diagnosis is currently based on cystoscopy, which is invasive, costly, painful and time consuming.  To date, no biomarker has been...

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy; it is the 4th most common cancer in males and the 9th in females.  The presenting symptom is usually blood in the urine, and diagnosis is currently based on cystoscopy, which is invasive, costly, painful and time consuming.  To date, no biomarker has been identified in the urine that might be used for screening, staging, prognosis and monitoring treatment.  We now report that the amount of the 60 kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) in a subject’s urine is a biomarker for muscle invasion in patients with bladder cancer – stage T2 and higher.  Moreover, subjects with stage T1 disease can be stratified by their urine levels of HSP60 into a sub-group likely to progress into stage T2 or into a sub-group more likely to respond to conservative treatment with BCG, which does not require removal of the bladder.  The distinction between these two sub-groups of T1 bladder cancer can identify earlier subjects in need of cystectomy, while sparing others unnecessary major surgery.

    Applications


    • Screening subjects with overt hematuria, or at risk of developing bladder cancer (such as heavy smokers)
    • tratifying bladder cancer subjects
    • Prognosis
    • Determining treatment program
    • Monitoring response to therapy.

    Advantages


    • Non-invasive
    • Easy to apply
    • Relatively inexpensive
    • Prognositic.

    Technology's Essence


    Quantitative measurement of HSP60 levels in a subject’s urine by ELISA, radio-immunoassay or other simple assays.

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    • Prof. Irun R. Cohen

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