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1481
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of nanoscale magnetic and thermal characterization tools in order to address rapidly evolving fields, such as nanomagnetism, spintronics and energy-efficient computing. The requirements from these tools include high sensitivity and...

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of nanoscale magnetic and thermal characterization tools in order to address rapidly evolving fields, such as nanomagnetism, spintronics and energy-efficient computing. The requirements from these tools include high sensitivity and high spatial resolution to enable local detection and accurate measurements of extremely low signals. For example, the energy dissipation mechanism in quantum systems is related to preservation of quantum information, which is of particular importance in the field of quantum computing. Available local magnetic imaging methods suffer from low sensitivity and in some cases, low spatial resolution. On the other hand, energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the nanometer scale and existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for studying quantum systems and are unsuitable for low temperature operation.

A novel sensor device comprising a nanoscale superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was developed by Prof. Zeldov at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The fabrication method enables the miniaturization of the sensor to an effective diameter of below 50 nm and its integration onto the apex of a very sharp tip that is ideally suited for scanning probe microscopy. The extremely small size of the SQUID-on-tip sensor and the ability to approach very close to the sample surface result in nano-metric spatial resolution and a very sensitivity.

Applications


·         Scanning probe microscopy for magnetic and thermal characterization

·         Inspection and probing equipment for quantum computing


Advantages


  • Simple fabrication process

  • High field sensitivity and bandwidth

  • Nanoscale sensors (down to 46 nm in diameter)

  • Tip-sample distance can be as close as a few nanometers


Technology's Essence


A SQUID is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields, based on superconducting loops. The present invention is a novel sensor device, based on a nanoscale two-junction or multi-junction SQUIDs fabricated on the edge of a sharp tip in a three dimensional geometric configuration. In such a setup, the SQUID can approach the sample to a distance of few nanometers, as opposed to the conventional planar SQUIDs, which results in an extremely high sensitivity.

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  • Prof. Eli Zeldov
1529
We present an efficient and robust broadband crystal optical conversion device. Various applications of laser optics require tunable laser sources. Currently, most frequency conversion devices rely on a single non-linear crystal, which is either temperature or angle tuned to enhance efficiency. This...

We present an efficient and robust broadband crystal optical conversion device. Various applications of laser optics require tunable laser sources. Currently, most frequency conversion devices rely on a single non-linear crystal, which is either temperature or angle tuned to enhance efficiency. This results only in a narrow efficient spectral band of conversion. Other techniques such as periodic quasi-phase matching result in improved efficiencies but still within a narrow predetermined band. Random quasi-phase matching results in improved bandwidth but in a significant reduction in efficiency. This new device enables ultra-broadband wavelength conversion while maintaining high efficiency.

Applications


  • Laser optics industry
  • Frequency convertor for broadband signals
  • Generation of ultrafast visible radiation
  • Pulse selection.

Advantages


  • 90% efficiency of conversion process.
  • Simple and compact
  • Insensitive to the deviations in alignment, no dependence of the angle incidence beam or of temperature
  • Frequency converter of both broadband signals and ultra-short pulses.

Technology's Essence


This device is based on a new method of adiabatic wavelength conversion. The device works whereby a strong narrow-band pump is introduced into the crystal along with a weaker pulse to be converted. This conversion is realized in a quasi-phase matched nonlinear crystal, where the period is tuned adiabatically from strong negative phase-mismatch to strong positive phase-mismatch (or vice versa). This results in the efficient transformation of the weaker pulse.

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  • Prof. Yaron Silberberg
1250
A robust method of identifying moving or changing objects in a video sequence groups each pixel with other adjacent pixels according to either motion or intensity values. Pixels are then repeatedly regrouped into clusters in a hierarchical manner. As these clusters are regrouped, the motion pattern is...

A robust method of identifying moving or changing objects in a video sequence groups each pixel with other adjacent pixels according to either motion or intensity values. Pixels are then repeatedly regrouped into clusters in a hierarchical manner. As these clusters are regrouped, the motion pattern is refined, until the full pattern is reached.

Applications


These methods for motion-based segmentation may be used in a multitude of applications that need to correctly identify meaningful regions in image sequences and compute their motion. Such applications include:

  1. Surveillance and homeland security - detecting changes, activities, objects.
  2. Medical Imaging - imaging of dynamic tissues.
  3. Quality control in manufacturing, and more.

Technology's Essence


Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have developed a multiscale, motion-based segmentation method which, unlike previous methods, uses the inherent multiple scales of information in images. The method begins by measuring local optical flow at every picture elements (pixels). Then, using algebraic multigrid (AMG) techniques, it assembles together adjacent pixels which are similar in either their motion or intensity values into small aggregates - each pixel being allowed to belong to different aggregates with different weights. These aggregates in turn are assembled into larger aggregates, then still larger, etc., yielding eventually full segments.

As the aggregation process proceeds, the estimation of the motion of each aggregate is refined and ambiguities are resolved. In addition, an adaptive motion model is used to describe the motion of an aggregate, depending on the amount of flow information that is available within each aggregate. In particular, a translation model is used to describe the motion of pixels and small aggregates, switch to an affine model to describe the motion of intermediate sized aggregates, and finally turn to a perspective model to describe aggregates at the coarsest levels of scale. In addition to this, methods for identifying correspondences between aggregates in different images are also being developed. These methods are suitable for image sequences separated by fairly large motion.

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  • Prof. Ronen Ezra Basri
1441
New protein as a target to treat B cell-related cancer.Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant disease characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes in the blood, lymphoid organs, and bone marrow, is the second most common type of leukemia in adults, accounting for about 7,000 new cases of...

New protein as a target to treat B cell-related cancer.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant disease characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes in the blood, lymphoid organs, and bone marrow, is the second most common type of leukemia in adults, accounting for about 7,000 new cases of leukemia each year. Presently, there is no cure for CLL, and the overall goal of leukemia treatment is to bring about a remission. Therefore, identifying new proteins that may serve as a target for inducing cell death in the malignant cells is highly desirable. The present technology identifies a new regulator protein that is essential for the survival of CLL cells.

Applications


• Treatment of CLL, as well as other B cell-related cancers (e.g. gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma), by blocking CD84 activity
• Diagnosis of CLL

Advantages


• Very specific to malignant B cells
• Diagnosis, and therefore treatment, can be made at early stages of the disease

 


Technology's Essence


B cells taken from CLL patients have a high level of the protein CD84. Stimulation of CD84 upregulates the survival of B-CLL. However, inhibition of CD84 activity with a blocking antibody downregulates the expression of another protein which controls B-CLL survival, thus inducing cell death. Therefore, the present invention reveals CD84 as a regulator of B-CLL survival

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  • Prof. Idit Shachar
1499
Bladder cancer is a common malignancy; it is the 4th most common cancer in males and the 9th in females.  The presenting symptom is usually blood in the urine, and diagnosis is currently based on cystoscopy, which is invasive, costly, painful and time consuming.  To date, no biomarker has been...

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy; it is the 4th most common cancer in males and the 9th in females.  The presenting symptom is usually blood in the urine, and diagnosis is currently based on cystoscopy, which is invasive, costly, painful and time consuming.  To date, no biomarker has been identified in the urine that might be used for screening, staging, prognosis and monitoring treatment.  We now report that the amount of the 60 kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) in a subject’s urine is a biomarker for muscle invasion in patients with bladder cancer – stage T2 and higher.  Moreover, subjects with stage T1 disease can be stratified by their urine levels of HSP60 into a sub-group likely to progress into stage T2 or into a sub-group more likely to respond to conservative treatment with BCG, which does not require removal of the bladder.  The distinction between these two sub-groups of T1 bladder cancer can identify earlier subjects in need of cystectomy, while sparing others unnecessary major surgery.

Applications


  • Screening subjects with overt hematuria, or at risk of developing bladder cancer (such as heavy smokers)
  • tratifying bladder cancer subjects
  • Prognosis
  • Determining treatment program
  • Monitoring response to therapy.

Advantages


  • Non-invasive
  • Easy to apply
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Prognositic.

Technology's Essence


Quantitative measurement of HSP60 levels in a subject’s urine by ELISA, radio-immunoassay or other simple assays.

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  • Prof. Irun R. Cohen
1021
A method for mapping and correcting optical distortion conferred by live cell specimens in microscopy that cannot be overcome using optical techniques alone can be used both for light microscopy and confocal microscopy. The system determines the 3D refractive index for the samples, and provides a...

A method for mapping and correcting optical distortion conferred by live cell specimens in microscopy that cannot be overcome using optical techniques alone can be used both for light microscopy and confocal microscopy. The system determines the 3D refractive index for the samples, and provides a method for ray tracing, calculation of 3D space variant point spread, and generalized deconvolution.

Applications


Microscopy: The method was developed and applied for light microscopy, and is of critical importance for detection of weak fluorescently labeled molecules (like GFP fusion proteins) in live cells. It may be applicable also to confocal microscopy and other imaging methods like ultrasound, deep ocean sonar imaging, radioactive imaging, non-invasive deep tissue optical probing and photodynamic therapy. Gradient glasses: The determination of the three-dimensional refractive index of samples allows testing and optimization of techniques for production of gradient glasses. Recently continuous refractive index gradient glasses (GRIN, GRADIUM) were introduced, with applications in high quality optics, microlenses, aspherical lenses, plastic molded optics etc. Lenses built from such glasses can be aberration-corrected at a level, which required doublets and triplets using conventional glasses. Optimized performance of such optics requires ray tracing along curved path, as opposed to straight segments between surface borders of homogeneous glass lenses. Curved ray tracing is computation-intensive and dramatically slows down optimization of optical properties. Our algorithm for ray tracing in gradient refractive index eliminates this computational burden.

Technology's Essence


A computerized package to process three-dimensional images from live biological cells and tissues was developed in order to computationally correct specimen induced distortions that cannot be achieved by optical technique. The package includes: 1. Three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the refractive index of the specimen. 2. Fast method for ray tracing through gradient refractive index medium. 3. Three-dimensional space variant point spread function calculation. 4. Generalized three-dimensional deconvolution.

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  • Prof. Zvi Kam
1265
A Novel water treatment method capable of handling a wide spectrum of pollutants, both organic and metallic was developed by the group of Prof. Berkowitz and proven in large scale. The combination of ever-growing contamination from various sources (industry, agriculture and domestic uses), the toxicity...

A Novel water treatment method capable of handling a wide spectrum of pollutants, both organic and metallic was developed by the group of Prof. Berkowitz and proven in large scale.

The combination of ever-growing contamination from various sources (industry, agriculture and domestic uses), the toxicity of contaminating compounds, and their extreme persistence in the environment, define a complex challenge and serious threat. Feasible technological responses to deal with growing deterioration in water resource quality are difficult to develop, largely because of the wide variety of contaminants having different properties, the stringent environmental standards that must be met, and the inherent heterogeneity of natural aquatic systems. The quest for cost-effective, environmentally-acceptable methods that can target a wide spectrum of contaminants, in situ and ex situ, is urgent and critical today more than ever.

The approach of the technology presented here is to reduce their oxidation state, i.e., to transform them electrochemically. In most cases, complete transformation of contaminants from the oxidized-organic group produces environmentally innocuous compounds, while reduction of heavy metals renders them insoluble and immobile, and therefore much less harmful. These treatment methods can be applied both in situ and ex situ for decontamination of soils, sediments, water, wastewater and gaseous process streams.

Applications


•           Polluted water and wastewater treatment.

•           Soil decontamination.

•           Gaseous process stream treatment.


Advantages


•           Environmentally friendly output.

•           Cost effective.

•           Can be applied in situ as well as ex situ.


Technology's Essence


The treatment method presented here is based on nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix.  Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows

high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours.

 

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  • Prof. Brian Berkowitz
1448
A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes. Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and...

A method to produce amides in one step without any unwanted by-products, by coupling of alcohols with amines with the liberation of hydrogen gas, catalyzed by unique ruthenium complexes.

Amides are widely used in the industry (e.g. nylon, Kevlar) and have widespread importance in biochemical and chemical systems (e.g. proteins). Synthesis of amides is mostly based on activated acid derivatives or rearrangement reactions induced by an acid or base, which often produce toxic chemical waste and involve tedious procedures. Therefore, an efficient synthesis that avoids wasteful use of coupling reagents or corrosive acidic and basic media is highly desirable. The current technology allows for the clean production of amides from amines and alcohols.

Applications


  • Production of amides for various applications (plastic and rubber industry, paper industry, pharmaceutical intermediates, etc.)

  • Use of the liberated hydrogen (e.g. for the production of ammonia)


Advantages


  • Clean and selective procedure

  • Environment friendly reaction (no base or acid promoters are required, no carboxylic acid derivatives, such as acid chlorides, are needed)

  • Amides and molecular hydrogen are produced in high yields and high turnover numbers directly from alcohols in one step

  • The liberated hydrogen can be used for different applications

  • Formation of a variety of amides


Technology's Essence


Amide formation is a fundamental reaction in chemical synthesis. Amides are commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid derivative with an amine. Instead of using carboxylic acid derivative, in the present invention the amide motif is generated by direct acylation of amines with alcohols. This is possible through the use of a unique catalyst. This method enables the simple and elegant production of amide polymers and industrially important amides.

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  • Prof. David Milstein
1506
A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products. Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these...

A simple electrochemical method and apparatus for the continues production of CO (carbon monoxide) from CO2 as chemical storage for electrical energy and a basic material for further organic products.

Constant progress is made in solar and wind alternative energy production. Unfortunately, these systems are weather and time-dependent. Additionally, most of the geographic areas best suited for harvesting these resources are remote from population centers. Therefore the need for a reliable method to store and transport renewable energy is clear.

CO can be easily converted into methanol, which is one of the major chemical raw materials and can by itself be used as fuel for diesel engines and the energy source for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).

At present no reliable method of CO2 to CO reduction is available. Either using low temperatures which leads to low thermodynamic efficiency (<60%), Requires precious metals for electrodes and results in toxic byproducts, or using high temperatures which Requires pure CO2 input and Produces a mixture of CO2 and CO.

The current technology describes an efficient, flexible, continues method for production of CO at high temperatures (900oC) without any byproducts or toxic materials.

Applications


  • Production of CO from CO2
  • Easy conversion into methanol

Advantages


·         No precious (Pt, Ag, Au, Pd) metals required

·         No hazardous chemicals involved, no pollution

·         Continuous operation is possible

·         One can use flue gas as a source

·         Capture of CO2 from air is possible

·         The system is very compact>20 kW/m3

·         Operation conditions are very flexible

·         The process fits existing infrastructure

·         CO can be easily converted into liquid fuel (CH3OH)


Technology's Essence


The outlined technology overcomes the basic problems of CO production by using molten Li2CO3 as the electrolyte, a Ti container (will not undergo corrosion), Ti cathode (does not catalyze decomposition of CO), and a graphite anode (no chemical reaction with Li2CO3). At 900°C and current density of 0.05-2 A/cm2, this unique system enables a thermodynamic efficiency close to 100%, continues production of CO – efficiently separating CO2 to CO and O2.

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1121
A method for aligning video images according to sequence. The problem of image alignment has been extensively studied, and successful approaches have been developed for solving this problem. However, these approaches turn out as problematic when there is insufficient overlap between the two images to...

A method for aligning video images according to sequence. The problem of image alignment has been extensively studied, and successful approaches have been developed for solving this problem. However, these approaches turn out as problematic when there is insufficient overlap between the two images to allow extraction of common image properties, i.e., when there is no sufficient similarity (e.g., gray-level, frequencies, statistical) between the two images. Whereas two individual images cannot be aligned when there is no spatial overlap between them, this is not the case when dealing with image sequences. The outlined technology consists of fusion and alignment of discrete, non-overlapping moving images from different sources, by aligning spatio-temporal changes in each sequence rather than in each image.

Applications


  • Multi-sensor image alignment for multi-sensor fusion
  • Alignment of images (sequences) obtained at significantly different zooms (can be useful in surveillance applications)
  • Generation of wide-screen movies from multiple non-overlapping narrow field-of-view movies (such as in IMAX movies) 
  • Alignment and integration of information across video sequences to exceed the physical visual limitations of any individual sensor (e.g., dynamic range, spectral range, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, etc). ~

Advantages


  • Useful for spatially non-overlapping sequences
  • Useful in cases which are inherently difficult for standard image alignment techniques, such as when there is insufficient common spatial information across the two sequences

Technology's Essence


An image sequence contains much more information than any individual image frame does. In particular, temporal changes in a video sequence (e.g., due to camera motion) do not appear in any individual image frame, but are encoded between video frames. When these temporal changes are common to the two sequences, then these sequences can be aligned both in time and in space, even if there is no common spatial information whatsoever. The need for coherent visual appearance, which is a fundamental assumption in image alignment methods, is replaced in this invention with the requirement of coherent temporal behavior. This can be achieved by attaching the two video cameras closely to each other (so that their centers of projections are very close), and moving them jointly in space (e.g., such as when the two cameras are mounted on a moving platform or rig).

 

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  • Prof. Michal Irani
1267
Description: Monoclonal antibodies specific for cholesterol/ceramide-rich domains (clones 405F, 14F, 499F) and cholesterol micro-domains (clones 36A1, 5881) in cell membranes. Originally raised against an artificial monolayer of lipid mixtures in, and were shown to specifically label the above domains...

Description: Monoclonal antibodies specific for cholesterol/ceramide-rich domains (clones 405F, 14F, 499F) and cholesterol micro-domains (clones 36A1, 5881) in cell membranes. 
Originally raised against an artificial monolayer of lipid mixtures in, and were shown to specifically label the above domains in different cell membranes. 
Reference:  Scheffer L, Futerman AH, Addadi L. 2007. Antibody labeling of cholesterol/ceramide ordered domains in cell membranes. Chembiochem 8(18):2286-94.

M263, M264, M265

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  • Prof. Lia Addadi
1512
Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting. Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business,...

Materials with unique optical and magnetic properties for preventing counterfeiting.

Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem; the range of counterfeited goods touches almost all industries, from clothing to pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that counterfeiting is a $600 billion a year business, and that counterfeit goods currently account for 5-7% of world trade. For this, companies need strategies that include various layers of security. Counterfeiters have learned to duplicate various types of security measures, so it is important to use a combination of overt and covert techniques simultaneously. The present technology consists of complexes and clusters  with a unique combination of optical and magnetic properties, that may be utilized for product authenticity.

Applications


  • Security 'markers' in documents or product authenticity, in the form of special printing inks or ink-jet applications


Advantages


  • Delayed emissions guarantees low noise level from exogenous fluorescent impurities

  • The clusters are emissive both in solution as well as in the solid state

  • Emissive complexes and clusters are circular polarized and therefore provide an additional layer of genuineness, as the true nature of the markers can only be identified using appropriate filters
  • The high magnetic properties of several of the compounds allows fast automated document screening


Technology's Essence


The outlined technology consists of a series of chiral organic ligands, their metal complexes, and several multi-nuclear clusters. Upon excitation, fluorescence emission can be selected to occur in the visible or the invisible near infrared regions of the spectrum. The spectrum is characterized by several well resolved emission maxima. The unique combination of optical and magnetic properties of these materials makes them promising candidates to serve as security 'markers'.

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  • Prof. Abraham Shanzer
1166
A series of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring hormone and drug additives in animals grown for the food industry. These include mAbs for peptide hormones, steroid hormones, drugs, leukotrienes, isoflavones, and veterinary drugs.

A series of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring hormone and drug additives in animals grown for the food industry. These include mAbs for peptide hormones, steroid hormones, drugs, leukotrienes, isoflavones, and veterinary drugs.

Applications


Monitoring hormone and drug additives in food providing animals for veterinary use and for the food industry.

Technology's Essence


Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have developed a series of mAb against peptide and steroid hormones, isoflavones, and human and veterinary drugs. These antibodies are particularly valuable for monitoring hormone and drug additives in food providing animals. The mAb are available for diagnostics, research, and therapeutics.

The following mAb are available for licensing:

(Clones marked with * are available for diagnostic and therapeutic use only).

Peptide Hormones:
LH: 4F10
bFSH: 1G12*, 1H9, 1H7
FSH: 6H6
bHCG: 1D5
bHCG+: 1C7 3F11
HGH: 1C12*, 1C4*, 5E9, 4E12, 5C3, 1C5, 6G3, 5E6, 2C12

Steroid Hormones:
progesterone-11a-HS 1E11*
progesterone-7a-CET 2H4
Estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3
Testosterone-3-CMO 5A4
Testosterone-3-CMO 5F2*
Estradiol-6-CMO 8D9*

Anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-steroids:
betatypic anti-anti-testosterone 5A4 8G9
betatypic anti-progesterone 2H4 15F11
betatypic anti-anti-estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3 7C1
alphatypic anti-progesterone 2H4 2E11
betatypic anti-anti-estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3 11C1

Drugs
Digoxin 10F10
RU-486* 8B6*
Buserelin 8B4
Medroxy-progesterone-acetate* 1F5*

Leukotrienes
LTC4* 6E7

Biotin
Biotin-BSA F1

Isoflavones
Daidzein 4E4
Daidzein/daidzin/genistin 2F11
Estrone-3-glucuronide 8A3
Genistein/biochanin A 10D8
Genistein/genistin/daidzin 6E8
Betatypic anti-anti-genistein 10D8

Veterinary drugs
Sulfamethazine (SMZ) 21C7
Betatypic anti-SMZ 12E12
4-chloro-androstenedione 14H2
Virginamycin 486
Spiramycin 110
Betatypic anti-anti-spiramycin 133

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  • Dr. Fortune Kohen
1381

Applications


The new method for detecting irregularities has many applications which include:

  1. Detecting suspicious and/or salient behaviors in video
  2. Attention and saliency in images
  3. Detecting irregular tissue in medical images
  4. Automatic visual inspection for quality assurance (e.g., detecting defects in goods)
  5. Generating a video summary/synopsis
  6. Intelligent fast forward
  7. Non-visual data

    Technology's Essence


    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have developed a new method for detecting irregularities based only on few regular examples, without any assumed models. In the new method the validity of data is determined as a process of constructing a puzzle: one tries to compose a new observed image region or a new video segment (''the query'') using chunks of data (''pieces of puzzle'') extracted from previous visual examples (''the database''). Regions in the observed data which can be composed using large contiguous chunks of data from the database are considered very likely, whereas regions in the observed data which cannot be composed from the database (or can be composed, but only using small fragmented pieces) are regarded as unlikely/suspicious. The problem is posed as an inference process in a probabilistic graphical model. The invention also includes an efficient algorithm for detecting irregularities. Moreover, the same method can also be used for detecting irregularities/anomalies within data without any prior examples, by learning the notion of regularity/irregularity directly from the query data itself.

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  • Prof. Michal Irani
1478
Plants can regain enhanced color and aroma via increased production of aromatic amino acids. Researchers at the Weizmann institute of science discovered a key regulatory enzyme of a central metabolic pathway in bacteria and expressed it in plants, obtaining transgenic plants with increased levels of...

Plants can regain enhanced color and aroma via increased production of aromatic amino acids. Researchers at the Weizmann institute of science discovered a key regulatory enzyme of a central metabolic pathway in bacteria and expressed it in plants, obtaining transgenic plants with increased levels of secondary metabolites including higher level of aromatic amino acids.

Farmers and researches have implemented intense selective breeding in flowering plants as an attempt to improve features of decorative flowers, focusing on appearance and shelf life. Consequently, one of the most valuable qualities of the flower such as its scent and had been severely weakened. Traditional breeding is limited in its ability to supply the market demand for creating original or enhanced colors due to genetic requirements.

The innovative method can improve scent and color of decorative flowering plants without interfering with other natural mechanisms of the plant.

Applications


  • Improved esthetical value due to strong color and pleasant scent to ornamental flowers.
  • The color and scent of flowers has an additional eco-systematic role in the reproduction of fruits. Manipulating both color and odor may allow future optimized ability the repulse insects or attracts pollinators. 
  •  This method can be applied not only to enhance naturally existing color but also for the recently commercialized production of new colors of plants. For example flavonoid biosynthesis which was shown to be enhanced by this method was also found to be highly relevant in generating unique flowers colors

Advantages


  • Enhanced fragrance and colors utilizing natural metabolic pathways of flowering plants.
  • No breeding and selection required to enhance flowers’ traits.
  • Endogenous integration between bacteria and plant that involves no interference with other natural mechanisms in the plants.

Technology's Essence


Researches at Prof. Gad Galili’s lab elicited a significant increase in the direct products of the shikimate pathway and in the aromatic amino acid Phenylalanine.

A central regulator in the shikimate pathway is the first committed enzyme of the pathway; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS). The bacterial DAHPS is feedback inhibited by a separate amino acid. At the core of this technology is the dominant isoform that is the AroG gene which is under the regulation of Phenylalanine and responsible for 80% of the total DAHPS activity.

By expressing a mutant bacterial AroG gene encoding a feedback insensitive DAHPS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, researchers achieved increased levels of the shikimate direct metabolites, products and aromatic amino acids. Detailed analysis revealed that while no metabolite exhibited decreased levels in the transgenic plants, the levels of shikimate intermediate metabolites, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and a verity of secondary metabolites (such as auxin and hormones conjugates) were increased by the mutant bacterial gene.

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  • Prof. Gad Galili
  • Prof. Asaph Aharoni

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