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Technology Name
Briefcase
Scientist
1704
Neuropathic Gaucher’s (nGD), is a rare but very severe manifestation of the disease, with a varying degree of involvement of the central nervous system, in addition to systemic symptoms. As of today, there is no cure for these severe conditions. The search for such cure is tremendously hindered by the...

Neuropathic Gaucher’s (nGD), is a rare but very severe manifestation of the disease, with a varying degree of involvement of the central nervous system, in addition to systemic symptoms. As of today, there is no cure for these severe conditions.
The search for such cure is tremendously hindered by the unmet need for a reliable biochemical biomarker for nGD.
The present invention identifies the glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB) as a potential powerful nGD biomarker for use in early diagnosis, determination of disease severity, as well as a straight forward readout in clinical and preclinical experiments.

Applications


Diagnosis and drug development for neuropathic GD

Advantages


Straight forward diagnostic tool – based on standard biochemical assays
Relatively simple clinical procedure – samples are collected from CSF and not brain
High sensitivity – for the diagnosis of disease severity
Compatible with preclinical experiments

Technology's Essence


Prof. Futerman and his team preformed a quantitative global proteomic analysis (using LC-MS/MS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from four patients with Type 3 GD, to identify mis-regulated proteins, compared with healthy subject.
Glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB), a protein that was previously associated with several lysosomal storage disorders, exhibited very high levels (a 42-fold increase) in the CSF of type 3 GD patients.  Two peptides were identified from GPNMB, both located in the non-cytosolic domain, suggesting that GPNMB is cleaved and secreted into the CSF from the brain. LC-MS/MS results were validated by ELISA and by western blot analysis in CSF and in human brain samples.
Several proof of principle experiments were conducted in order to prove the validity of using GPNMB as a biomarker for monitoring disease state and treatments efficacy in neuropathic GD in patients and mouse models:
GPNMB levels were shown to be correlated with the severity of type 3 Gaucher’s disease patients, as measured by lower IQ score and lower score in Purdue Pegboard test, assessing eye-hand coordination. In addition, using conduritol b epoxide (CBE)-injection based mouse model that simulate different severities and recovery periods, it was shown that GPNMB levels rapidly rise or decline to reliably reflect progress/remission states of the diseases.

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  • Prof. Anthony H. Futerman
1800
A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses. The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt...

A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses.

The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt stimulations. This may allow TMS-EEG to be used as a diagnostic tool for various neurologic and psychiatric conditions.

However, large electric artifacts are induced in the EEG by the TMS, which are unrelated to brain activity and obscure crucial stages of the brain's response. These artifacts are orders of magnitude larger than the physiological brain activity, and persist from a few to hundreds of milliseconds. However, no generally accepted algorithm is available that can remove the artifacts without unintentionally and significally altering physiological information.

The software designed according to the model along with a friendly GUI is a powerful tool for the TMS-EEG field. The software has tested and proven to be effective on real datasets measured on psychiatric patients.

Applications


  • TMS triggered EEG diagnostics

Advantages


  • Easy to use software with a GUI
  • Exposes the full EEG from the brain

Technology's Essence


The new software tool is based on the observation that, contrary to expectation, the decay of the electrode voltage after the TMS pulse is a power law in time rather than an exponential. A model based on two dimensional diffusion of the accumulated charge from the high electric
fields of the TMS in the skin was built. This model reproduces the artifact precisely, including the many perplexing artifact shapes that are seen on the different electrodes. Artifact removal software based on this model exposes the full EEG from the brain, as validated by continuously reconstructing 50Hz signals that are the same magnitude as the brain signals.

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  • Prof. Elisha Moses
1751
Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets. The present...

Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets.
The present discovery elucidates the pathway by which argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) down-regulation confer cancer progression. It shows that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by linking excess aspartate to pyrimidines synthesis. Importantly, these studies highlight Citrin (a mitochondrial aspartate transporter) inhibition as a potential method to decrease aspartate levels and selectively target this metabolic pathway in ASS1 depleted cancers.

Applications


  • Targeted Treatment for ASS1 depleted cancers.

Advantages


  • Targeted therapy, against a well defined pathway, increases the prospects for success.
  • Selective – targeting cancer metabolic dependency minimizes the chances for healthy cells damage that lead to side effects.

Technology's Essence


Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit in what is termed the Warburg effect. Researchers from Dr. Ayelet Erez's lab, at the Weizmann institute of Science, have delineated the metabolic benefit(s) conferred by loss of ASS1 to cancers. In agreement with previous experience, they found that ASS1 deficiency has an additional arginine- independent effect that is directly related to its substrate, aspartate.
By focusing on the relevant physiological and pathological model systems, it was found that ASS1 deficiency-mediated increase in aspartate levels lead to excessive proliferation through pyrimidine synthesis. The link between the two is provided by CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase complex) and the mTOR signaling pathway.
Importantly, the present inventors have found that blocking Citrin, the mitochondrial aspartate transporter, rescues cell proliferation by reducing aspartate levels. Citrin may thus serve as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of ASS1 depleted cancers.   
Supporting this model, retrospective survival analysis of several cancers reveal that cancers with both decreased ASS1 expression and high Citrin levels have a trend for significantly worse prognosis.

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  • Dr. Ayelet Erez
1802
A new signal processing tool for the detection of pulses travelling through media with complex or unknown dispersion properties was developed by the group of Prof. Gal-Yam, originally for detecting radio bursts in astronomical observations. Pulses are applied in various fields such as oil & gas...

A new signal processing tool for the detection of pulses travelling through media with complex or unknown dispersion properties was developed by the group of Prof. Gal-Yam, originally for detecting radio bursts in astronomical observations.
Pulses are applied in various fields such as oil & gas exploration, detection (e.g. sonar, lidar and radar) and communication. When pulses pass through dispersive media, the arrival times at the detector of different frequency components may differ, and as a result the pulse may become degraded (e.g. transformed to a longer pulse with reduced intensity), even to the level of becoming indistinguishable in terms of signal to noise. This problem becomes even more challenging when detecting short pulses that travel through complex or unknown media.
The new method presented here provides a proven and efficient solution that can be applied for different scenarios where short pulses dispersed by complex media are used. 

Applications


  • Detection and surveying technologies- sonar, lidar, radar etc

Advantages


  • Efficient, requires limited computational resources
  • Generic, can be applied to various setups
  • Easily implementable into existing systems

Technology's Essence


The method includes obtaining an input array of cells, each indicating an intensity of a frequency component of the signal at a representative time. A fast dispersion measure transform (FDMT) is applied to concurrently sum the cells of the input array that lie along different dispersion curves, each curve defined by a known non-linear functional form and being uniquely characterized by a time coordinate and by a value of the dispersion measure. Application of FDMT includes initially generating a plurality of sub-arrays, each representing a frequency sub-band and iteratively combining pairs of adjacent sub-arrays in accordance with an addition rule until all of the initially generated plurality of sub-arrays are combined into an output array of the sums, in which a cell of the output array that is indicative of a transmitted pulse is identified.

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  • Prof. Avishay Gal-Yam
1712
  • Prof. Yechiel Shai
1670
A method for selective extraction of precious and rare metals has been developed at the Weizmann Institute. This method allows the efficient and environmentally benign recovery of precious materials that are currently discarded of in large quantities from spent catalysts (automotive and industrial)...

A method for selective extraction of precious and rare metals has been developed at the Weizmann Institute. This method allows the efficient and environmentally benign recovery of precious materials that are currently discarded of in large quantities from spent catalysts (automotive and industrial) from industrial processes (particularly in the electronic industry).

Prof. Igor Lubomirsky’s novel process is based on volatilization for selective extraction of precious and rare metals using benign metal salts, rather than dangerous chlorine gas as a chlorinating agent. The new process requires relatively low temperatures and is free from hazardous waste, among its additional advantages over conventional methods.

We believe that this efficient technology is key to increased reclaimed precious metals output, potentially resulting in the reduction of the demand for primary rare metals.

Applications


·           Recycling precious metals from spent items, e.g. platinum group metals from catalytic convertors


Advantages


·         No toxic input – chlorides are used rather than chlorine gas.

·         No hazardous waste is generated in the process.

·         Mild conditions. High-temperature furnaces and equipment are not required.

·         Relatively simple setup in comparison to conventional ones.

·         Small scale plants are economically viable.


Technology's Essence


Prof. Igor Lubomirsky and his group developed a novel method for the recovery of PGM from spent catalysts that can be applicable for other spent systems as well.

The method comprises of crushing the spent catalyst to obtain a catalyst particulate material with g a predetermined grain size and reacting it with chlorine containing salts rather than pure chlorine gas in a furnace at relatively low temperatures (900oC, far below the temperature required in the conventional volatilization method). This is followed by cooling the volatile PMG chloride product converting it into solid phase metal.

 

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1753
The Chiral Induced Spin Selectivity (CISS) effect, discovered in recent years by Prof. Ron Naaman from the Weizmann Institute of Science, implies that electrons transferred through chiral molecules possess a specific spin orientation. Hence, the molecular chirality and electron spin are correlated.A...

The Chiral Induced Spin Selectivity (CISS) effect, discovered in recent years by Prof. Ron Naaman from the Weizmann Institute of Science, implies that electrons transferred through chiral molecules possess a specific spin orientation. Hence, the molecular chirality and electron spin are correlated.
A team of researchers lead by Prof. Naaman have been investigating the CISS effect in different systems. They found that the high efficiency of many natural multiple electron reactions can also be attributed to spin alignment of the electrons involved.
The present innovation looks at hydrogen production through water electrolysis, showing that when using anodes coated by chiral molecules the efficiency of the electrolysis process increases by 30% compared to using uncoated, regular electrodes.

Applications


  • Control of electron spin
  • Significant reduction of over-potential in spin sensitive electrochemical reactions
  • Efficient electrochemical processes
  • Minimum side reactions

  • Advantages


     

    Technology's Essence


    Spin selective electrodes made from standard electrode material are coated with chiral molecules. These coated electrodes were used for electrolysis of water and showed superior efficacy compared to standard un-coated electrodes, by reduction of the over-potential required for the process. This is explained by the spin selective electron conduction through the chiral layer:

     

     

     

    Hydrogen production as a function of time for (A) the chiral molecules and (B) for the achiral molecules. The potentials in the brackets refer to the over-potential compared to DNA coated electrode. The measurements were conducted at the Eapp for each of the molecules.

     

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    • Prof. Ron Naaman
    1646
    Dedicated and highly efficient EPR analysis of small volume samples in a range of few µl is now made simple with a novel device invented at the Weizmann Institute of Science. This device features a new ejection mechanism and a unique cold trap which enables collection of all time points in a RFQ series...

    Dedicated and highly efficient EPR analysis of small volume samples in a range of few µl is now made simple with a novel device invented at the Weizmann Institute of Science. This device features a new ejection mechanism and a unique cold trap which enables collection of all time points in a RFQ series in one continuous experiment.
    In order to design and develop inhibitors for therapeutic purposes, the reaction mechanisms of enzymes must be understood. For biological applications, a common methodology of addressing this need is combining Rapid Freeze Quench with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (RFQ)-EPR, which allows the trapping and analysis of short lived intermediates in chemical reactions. However, commercial RFQ-EPR devices are limited for high field EPR applications due to the demand of large sample volumes for each time point.
    Prof. Goldfarb and her team built a new RFQ apparatus based on microfluidic flow and unique ejection and freezing systems, which can be used for collecting small volume samples in capillaries for high field EPR.

    Applications


    This technology, combined with the variety of W-band high resolution EPR technique (ENDOR, DEER and ESEEM) enables better mechanistic studies of enzymatic reactions, with an emphasis on structural transformations during the reaction, in an efficient and accurate way.


    Advantages


    • Collecting all RFQ time points in one continues experiment.
    • Produce small volume samples in the range of a few µl, and handles small capillaries, for high field ERP.
    • An improved dead time of ~5ms, relative to the commercial RFQs with a typical dead-time of 5–10 ms.
    • Ease-of-use and speed.

    Technology's Essence


    The innovative apparatus consists of two main parts: the microfluidic device and the freeze-quench setup. The microfluidic device comprises a mixer, which mixes the two reacting solutions, a flow path where the reaction occurs, and a sprinkler from which the solution is sprayed out of the device. Prof. Goldfarb and her colleagues improved the common mixing device by adding a fast stream of nitrogen gas which mixes with the ejected reaction solution, and sprays the frozen aerosol out in tiny drops at high speed.
    The innovative RFQ device was planned to have a cold solid surface on which the freezing happens rather than the traditional ejection into a cold liquid, in order to minimize the losses of the frozen solution. Moreover the plate rotates at a speed correlated to the flow speed of the solution, thus samples of different reaction times can freeze on a different radius. The frozen samples are then collected into quartz capillaries.

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    • Prof. Daniella Goldfarb
    1593
    The study of social behavior in groups of mice may have crucial implications for understanding the social aspects of different disorders.  To be executed correctly, group studies require the ability to track individual’s behavior within the group structure. The main challenge of current research tools...

    The study of social behavior in groups of mice may have crucial implications for understanding the social aspects of different disorders. 
    To be executed correctly, group studies require the ability to track individual’s behavior within the group structure. The main challenge of current research tools is to allow individuals identification while maintaining sufficient resolution for accurate tracking.
    The present technology provides a system that utilizes fluorescent fur dyes to differentially mark and track individuals within a group. Using a sensitive color camera and a newly designed tracking algorithm, behavior of groups may be recorded and analyzed with high temporal and spatial resolution.   
    The technology further offers a method for characterizing the group’s interactions using the maximum entropy model.

     

    Applications


     


    Advantages


  • High spatial and temporal resolution – enabled by sensitive color video tracking.
  • Enables high detailed analysis of individual behavior within the group.
  • Suitable for community study of groups - limited only by available fur dyes.
  • Compatible with long-term analysis.
  • Simple, cost effective.
  • Minimal suffering and improved animal welfare.

  • Technology's Essence


    The present technology takes advantage of the fact that mice are nocturnal (active at night) animals, to mark their fur with different fluorescent dyes. Under ultraviolet light, the mice can be accurately and automatically tracked, over a number of days. As the mice are allowed to move freely in an interesting arena for exploration containing ramps, nest boxes and barriers (Figure 1), their trajectory and behavior are recorded using a sensitive color camera.
    The system further includes an image processing module which analyses the recorded images, calculates a spatiotemporal model and the nature of social interactions between individuals.
    Combining detailed behavioral and genetic analysis ate the level of individuals, in association with group analysis, may enable the identification of genetic and neuronal correlates of complex social interactions. 

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    • Prof. Alon Chen
    1621
    Novel treatment for angiogenesis-related diseases.Angiogenesis — the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature — has an essential role in development, reproduction and repair. Pathological angiogenesis is a common theme in a broad range of diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases,...

    Novel treatment for angiogenesis-related diseases.Angiogenesis — the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature — has an essential role in development, reproduction and repair. Pathological angiogenesis is a common theme in a broad range of diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, age-related macular degeneration and atherosclerosis. The global market for angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is forecast to reach ~US $50 billion by the year 2015. Most of the currently marketed angiogenesis regulators, such as Avastin, typically display modest efficacy and therefore further highlight the great need for the development of novel therapeutics. The current technology presents a novel method to treat angiogenesis-related disorders by modulating apolipoprotein B (ApoB).

    Applications


    • ApoB is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer and other non-neoplastic diseases.
    • ApoB levels may serve as a biomarker for cancer metastasis.

    Advantages


    • The anti-angiogenic effect of LDL administration was demonstrated in vivo, in zebrafish models, as well as in vitro, in relevant human cells lines.
    • Regulation of ApoB levels may be applied to treat a broad range of angiogenesis-dependent diseases.
    • Detection of ApoB levels can be readily achieved by analysis of body fluids such as blood and plasma.

    Technology's Essence


    Using a high-throughput genetic screen for vascular defects in zebrafish, researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have identified a genetic mutation that leads to excessive angiogenesis. The mutated gene is responsible for the assembly of ApoB-containing lipoproteins such as LDL, otherwise known as the ‘bad’ cholesterol. The group has found that low levels of LDL promote the formation of new blood vessels by directly interacting with the VEGF pathway. The outlined technology offers methods to modulate the levels of ApoB in order to stimulate, or inhibit angiogenesis, dependent on the therapeutic strategy. For example, inhibition of angiogenesis by increasing ApoB levels may repress tumor growth and attenuate its metastatic potential. In another application of this technology, increased circulating levels of ApoB can serve as a biomarker for the overproduction of blood vessels, thus enabling early diagnosis of pathogenic states in angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

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    • Prof. Karina Yaniv
    1564
    A new recyclable size-selective filtration device. Particle size, chemical purity and dispersion of nanoparticles crucially determine their optical, electronic and chemical properties. Size-selective separation technologies are becoming increasingly important for the development of nanoparticles with...

    A new recyclable size-selective filtration device.

    Particle size, chemical purity and dispersion of nanoparticles crucially determine their optical, electronic and chemical properties. Size-selective separation technologies are becoming increasingly important for the development of nanoparticles with well-defined sizes, which have application in the fields of optoelectronic devices, biomedicine, materials, and catalysis.

    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute have fabricated supramolecular ultrafiltration membranes that can be used for filtration and size-selective chromatography of nanoparticles. The membranes are composed of a self-assembled three-dimensional fibrous network that is held together by reversible non-covalent interactions.

    The membranes are robust, easy to fabricate, and recyclable.

    Applications


    • Size-selective separation of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles
    • Uniformity and monodispersity of nanoparticles in solution.
    • Size exclusion chromatography of nanoparticles in the sub-5-nm size regime.

    Advantages


    • Efficient and inexpensive

    • Fast and easy fabrication

    • Recyclable

    • Self-assembled

    • Dual application regime: filtration and/or chromatography


    Technology's Essence


    The recyclable supramolecular membranes are formed from unique perylene derivatives that are large and flat aromatic molecules. These molecules are insoluble in water and form a 3-D network over a solid support, which can be used for the separation of nanoparticles.

    The filters can be subsequently recycled from this mixture using an organic solvent (e.g. dichloromethane), which separates the membrane material from the water-soluble nanoparticles, and reused without loss of performance.

    This material is hence highly attractive for application in the field of nanotechnology.

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    • Prof. Boris Rybtchinski
    1650
    Efficient Production of natural Astaxanthin in bioengineered bacteria is a game changer for the nutraceuticals industry. The market-pull for natural Astaxanthin is much greater than the supply. Synthetic Astaxanthin is produced from petrochemical sources; it contains unwanted stereoisomers and is...

    Efficient Production of natural Astaxanthin in bioengineered bacteria is a game changer for the nutraceuticals industry. The market-pull for natural Astaxanthin is much greater than the supply. Synthetic Astaxanthin is produced from petrochemical sources; it contains unwanted stereoisomers and is rejected by consumers who prefer natural Astaxanthin. Production of natural Astaxanthin in microalgae is laborious, expensive, and time-consuming.
    Researchers at the Weizmann Institute used a combinatorial approach to construct bioengineered operons capable of modulating the expression levels of enzymes involved in the production of Astaxanthin. By combinatorial pairing of these genes in E. coli, they achieved natural Astaxanthin production 4-fold higher than previously reported.
    The innovative method can challenge the deficiencies of natural Astaxanthin production in microalgae. Following scale-up and industrial development of the proprietary process, production of natural Astaxanthin has the potential to be considerably cheaper and competitive with the cost of synthesizing Astaxanthin.

    Applications


    • Cost-effective Production of natural Astaxanthin for the nutraceuticals industry, animal feed industry, and others.
    • A doorway to the generation of many future products in E. coli, specifically metabolites that are produced in elaborate metabolic pathways.

    Advantages


    • Full control over carotenoid accumulation profile.
    • Cheaper, straightforward generation of Astaxanthin in E. coli as opposed to generation in algae which involves high raw materials cost, land usage, air emissions etc.
    • Natural Astaxanthin as opposed to synthetic, uncontaminated with intermediate compounds and stereoisomers.

    Technology's Essence


    At Dr. Ron Milo’s lab researchers employed a method that uses the relatively short Ribosome Binding Site (RBS) sequence in a combinatorial manner. The methodology involves combinatorial pairing of target genes (Astaxanthin metabolic pathway enzymes) with a small set of RBS sequences and assembling them into a library of synthetic operons to explore protein expression space and to locate desired phenotypes in bacteria.
    The researchers used a small set of RBS sequences to modulate in parallel the protein expression levels of multiple genes over several orders of magnitude. Using this approach, they were able to efficiently scan a large fraction of the Astaxanthin metabolic expression space with a manageable set of tested genotypes.

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    • Prof. Ron Milo
    1597
    Metal-oxide material generates electromechanical stress an order of magnitude above existing materials.The ability to develop a mechanical stress in response to the application of an external electric field has many uses, and characteristic materials are classified as either piezoelectric or...

    Metal-oxide material generates electromechanical stress an order of magnitude above existing materials.The ability to develop a mechanical stress in response to the application of an external electric field has many uses, and characteristic materials are classified as either piezoelectric or electrostrictive. Modern inorganic piezoelectric devices are used for a wide variety of applications from inexpensive speakers and headphones, to sophisticated sonar transducers. Over the last several decades, these materials have become highly reliable and technologically mature, but the magnitude of the mechanical stress they can generate in response to an input electric signal has reached an upper limit.This innovative technology applies Gadolinium-doped Cerium Oxide (Gd-doped CeO2) to piezoelectric and electrostrictive devices and will enable high-performance electromechanical materials with output capabilities an order of magnitude above existing solutions, in excess of 500 MPa. This could facilitate the next generation of many consumer and industrial electronic devices.

    Applications


    • Wide range of personal electronic devices
    • Industrial and fine electronics – specifically powerful acoustic transducers

    Advantages


    • Generate large displacement and large stress simultaneously
    • Sensitive and tunable properties

    Technology's Essence


    In piezoelectric devices, stress develops due to the deformation of a non-centrosymmetric lattice under the application of an electric field. In commercial electrostrictors, or materials with centrosymmetric lattices and very large dielectric constants, an external electric field distorts the unit cells of the lattice, rendering them locally non-centrosymmetric. In both cases, the electromechanical stress develops due to a small displacement of atoms within each unit cell. Increasing the magnitude of the response would lead to more powerful actuators, and permit a decrease in the operating voltage; therefore, the search for novel mechanisms of electromechanical response in solids remains an important objective for both fundamental and applied science.

    We have demonstrated that Gd-doped CeO2, specifically Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9, can generate stress an order of magnitude greater than the best electromechanically active materials. The large stress develops in response to the rearrangement of cerium-oxygen vacancy pairs and their local environment. This effect is expected to be two-fold; i) an applied electric field results in strain and stress directly, and ii) application of the external electric field affects the elastic modulus of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 by suppressing the chemical strain effect. This is a fundamentally different mechanism than materials currently in use. In this view, Gd-doped CeO2 is representative of a new family of high-performance electromechanical materials.

     

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    • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
    1629
    A new unsupervised learning tool for analyzing large datasets using very limited known data via clustering was developed by the group of Prof. Domany. This solution was originally demonstrated for inferring pathway deregulation scores for specific tumor samples on the basis of expression data.Nearly...

    A new unsupervised learning tool for analyzing large datasets using very limited known data via clustering was developed by the group of Prof. Domany. This solution was originally demonstrated for inferring pathway deregulation scores for specific tumor samples on the basis of expression data.
    Nearly all methods analyze pathway activity in a global “atomistic” manner, based on an entire sample set, not attempting to characterize individual tumors. Other methods use detailed pathway activity mechanism information and other data that is unavailable in a vast majority of cancer datasets.
    The new algorithm described here transforms gene-level information into pathway- level information, generating a compact and biologically relevant representation of each sample. This can be used as an effective prognostic and predictive tool that helps healthcare providers to find optimal treatment strategies for cancer patients. Furthermore, this method can be generically used for reducing the degrees of freedom in order to derive meaningful output from multi-dimensional data using limited knowns.

    Applications


    • Personalized cancer treatment.
    • A tool for mining insight from large datasets with limited knowns.

    Advantages


    • Provides personalized solutions.
    • Can be utilized for rare conditions with very limited known information.
    • Proved on real oncologic datasets.
    • A Generic unsupervised learning tool.

    Technology's Essence


    The algorithm analyzes NP pathways, one at a time, assigning a score DP(i) to each sample i and pathway P, which estimates the extent to which the behavior of pathway P deviates from normal, in sample i. To determine this pathway deregulation score the expression levels of those dP genes that belong to P using available databases are used. Each sample i is a point in this dP dimensional space; the entire set of samples forms a cloud of points, and the “principal curve” that captures the variation of this cloud is calculated. Then each sample is projected onto this curve. The pathway deregulation score is defined as the distance DP(i), measured along the curve, of the projection of sample i, from the projection of the normal samples.

     

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    • Prof. Eytan Domany
    • Prof. Eytan Domany
    1577
    A novel desulfurization system achieves removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from industrial exhaust streams at efficiencies that can greatly supersede technologies currently in use. The chemical process is highly selective to SO2, and consumes much less reagents, therefore reducing the cost of...

    A novel desulfurization system achieves removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from industrial exhaust streams at efficiencies that can greatly supersede technologies currently in use. The chemical process is highly selective to SO2, and consumes much less reagents, therefore reducing the cost of desulfurization.Techniques to capture SO2 from coal-burning plants have not changed in nearly 40 years. Once implemented, the technology presented here can become significantly more efficient and environmentally friendly than existing techniques, since no slurry waste is created from the wet sorbents typically used to capture SO2.The novel system can selectively recycle SO2 into useful sulfur-based compounds which can be resold; utilizing a carbonate eutectic melt this procedure can also be aimed to generate elemental sulfur, an inert and non-toxic compound which can be stored long-term until required for further use.In a world anxious over climate change, yet in demand of more energy, solutions should have the capacity to be implemented quickly and incorporated into existing infrastructure. This technology offers the potential to tackle several problems with one simple solution.

    Applications


    Integrate into industrial fossil-fuel burning facilities which include:

    • Power plants
    • Cement factories
    • Steel foundries

    Advantages


    • Implement into existing infrastructure and reduce reagents’ costs compared to current techniques
    • Significantly higher efficiency and elimination of hazardous waste by-products
    • Potential generation of revenue from recycled Sulfur waste.

    Technology's Essence


    The significant enhancement of this scrubbing technique is the sequentially operable scrubbing zone and regeneration zone, which communicate with one another via a molten eutectic mixture of lithium, sodium and potassium carbonates. In the scrubbing zone, an ingress flue gas interacts with the molten carbonates, resulting in chemical absorbance of the SO2 and in discharge of reaction gases. In the regeneration zone, either chemical or electrochemical melt regeneration takes place resulting in formation of sulfur containing vapor which is cooled down for converting the sulfur-containing vapor into a liquid and solid phase for a further collection and utilization.The technology developed by Prof. Igor Lubomirsky and his team introduces three essential improvements over past techniques: (i) the removal of sulfate from the melt is achieved at expected operating temperatures of an industrial scrubbing tower (480-550°C), which drastically reduces corrosion of metal components, (ii) the reduction of sulfates by CO gas rather than by carbon powder represents a simpler, one-step process, which results in a high reduction rate and allows for the reaction chamber to be small (few tens of m3 for a 1GW coal plant), and (iii) the removal of sulfate in the form of COS, rather than H2S, provides considerable freedom in choosing the final sulfur product – either sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur.

     

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    • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky

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