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Technology Name
Briefcase
Scientist
1782
L-DOPA is a high value compound used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and a precursor for other high value compounds. Current industrial methods for producing L-DOPA are problematic in terms of complexity, yield, or toxic byproducts.Betalains are robust, flavorless, natural water soluble dyes,...

L-DOPA is a high value compound used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and a precursor for other high value compounds. Current industrial methods for producing L-DOPA are problematic in terms of complexity, yield, or toxic byproducts.
Betalains are robust, flavorless, natural water soluble dyes, in the color ranges of both red-violet and yellow-orange. Currently there is no natural quality source for water soluble natural yellow dyes, with present natural yellow dyes being water insoluble.
The present technology offers an alternative method that is simple, does not produce side-products, and is non-toxic with Tyrosine being the only feedstock. The technology produces L-DOPA and natural water soluble yellow and red Betalain dyes, both within yeast and in different plant species.

Applications


  • Production of L-DOPA for use in pharmaceuticals or dietary supplements.
  • Synthesis of water soluble yellow and red natural dyes for use as colorants, antioxidants, and food supplements.
  • Altering coloration of ornamental plants by inserting the metabolic pathway.

Advantages


  • One-step reaction for L-DOPA synthesis from Tyrosine.
  • Non-toxic and non-hazardous synthesis.
  • Ecologically friendly - no waste management issues.
  • Multiple colors can be produced with yellow, red, or orange if pathways combined.
  • Flavorless - avoid influencing the taste of different products.
  • Flexibility in biosynthetic production - multiple possible host systems.
  • Specificity - no side products produced
  • Mild Conditions - enzyme(s) requires ambient temperatures.

Technology's Essence


The present technology takes advantage of the Betalain biosynthetic pathway to selectively produce L-DOPA and natural Betalain dyes. A newly discovered, specific, cytochrome P450-CYP76AD6 begins the pathway, with the capacity to convert Tyrosine to L-DOPA. Then L-DOPA is converted to Betalamic acid via DOPA 4, 5-dioxygenase.
With the Betalamic acid intermediate, the biosynthetic pathway diverges to make either Betaxanthins (yellow dyes) or Betacyanins (red dyes). In the production of yellow dyes an amine (e.g. amino acid) spontaneously reacts with Betalamic acid. In the case of red dyes, cycloDOPA (generated by the enzyme CYP76AD1 modifying Tyrosine and L-DOPA) and a Betalain-related glucosyltransferase react with Betalamic acid. Furthermore the two pathways can be done in parallel to produce an orange color.

 

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  • Prof. Asaph Aharoni
1690
Optimal growth and metabolic activities of Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB) starters are critical for assuring high-quality fermentation in the manufacturing process of numerous dairy products. Despite extensive efforts, phage infection of starter cultures for dairy processing remains the most common cause...

Optimal growth and metabolic activities of Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB) starters are critical for assuring high-quality fermentation in the manufacturing process of numerous dairy products. Despite extensive efforts, phage infection of starter cultures for dairy processing remains the most common cause of slow or incomplete fermentation and product downgrading. Standard anti-phage measures (sanitation, culture handling) fail to provide sufficient protection, exposing the production process to massive economic setbacks.
Extensive R&D efforts have led to the discovery of phage resistance systems, however many phages can circumvent these systems, and in addition not all LABs can accommodate them.
Therefore, there is a strong need for additional defense systems that could naturally protect LABs against phages.
The Sorek laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Science has recently identified hundreds of novel functional toxin/antitoxin systems in bacterial genomes. These systems were discovered using analysis of data from millions of shotgun cloning experiments across 388 bacterial species. Acting as an abortive infection agent to prevent phage spread, some of these systems were already validated as conferring resistance against phage infection upon introduction to E.coli cells.
In another novel technology, researchers at Dr. Rotem Sorek’s lab identified a novel anti phage gene cassette, termed BREX (Bacteriophage Exclusion), which confers complete or partial resistance against phages spanning a wide phylogeny of phage types, including lytic and temperate ones.

Applications


  • Tools for conferring anti-phage traits to bacterial starters.

Advantages


  • Provides efficient phage-resistance features.
  • Robust: confers resistance to a broad range of phages, including both lytic and temperate ones.
  • General: the same defense system may be applied in various cultures, not confined to specific strains.
  • Novel systems, provides a fresh approach to the field of phage resistance 

Technology's Essence


Toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules, composed of a toxic protein and a counteracting antitoxin, are proposed to function in phage defense via abortive infection. The two genes, which reside on the same operon, code for small proteins where inhibition of the toxin is carried out through protein-protein interaction. Upon a specific signal (phage infection) the antitoxin degrades rapidly by one of the housekeeping bacterial proteases, resulting in either bacteriocidic (cell-killing) or bacteriostatic (growth-inhibiting) effects, thus protecting the colony against phage spread. The inventors took advantage of the concept that toxins could only be cloned when the neighboring antitoxin was present on the same clone to systematically reveal active TA pairs. Following extensive statistical and experimental validations, 8 novel families of TA pairs that are likely to play a role in phage defense were identified. By introducing these systems into new bacteria, the inventors showed that the toxin/antitoxin pairs could protect the engineered bacteria from phage infection.
BREX is a novel cassette of six genes that confers protection against a wide range of phages, including virulent and temperate ones. This cassette is composed of genes not typically found in other defense systems, and hence employs a novel mechanism of anti-phage protection. Scientists at the Sorek lab further uncovered the mode of action of this novel system. It was shown that the system is not an abortive infection system (i.e., does not lead to suicide of the infected cell), and that it allows phage adsorption but blocks phage replication in a DNA degradation independent manner.

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  • Prof. Rotem Sorek
1751
Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets. The present...

Many cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Specific targeting of these metabolic dependencies offers cancer patients increased efficiency and minimized side effects. Yet, the complexity of these pathways hinders the identification of targets.
The present discovery elucidates the pathway by which argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) down-regulation confer cancer progression. It shows that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by linking excess aspartate to pyrimidines synthesis. Importantly, these studies highlight Citrin (a mitochondrial aspartate transporter) inhibition as a potential method to decrease aspartate levels and selectively target this metabolic pathway in ASS1 depleted cancers.

Applications


  • Targeted Treatment for ASS1 depleted cancers.

Advantages


  • Targeted therapy, against a well defined pathway, increases the prospects for success.
  • Selective – targeting cancer metabolic dependency minimizes the chances for healthy cells damage that lead to side effects.

Technology's Essence


Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit in what is termed the Warburg effect. Researchers from Dr. Ayelet Erez's lab, at the Weizmann institute of Science, have delineated the metabolic benefit(s) conferred by loss of ASS1 to cancers. In agreement with previous experience, they found that ASS1 deficiency has an additional arginine- independent effect that is directly related to its substrate, aspartate.
By focusing on the relevant physiological and pathological model systems, it was found that ASS1 deficiency-mediated increase in aspartate levels lead to excessive proliferation through pyrimidine synthesis. The link between the two is provided by CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase complex) and the mTOR signaling pathway.
Importantly, the present inventors have found that blocking Citrin, the mitochondrial aspartate transporter, rescues cell proliferation by reducing aspartate levels. Citrin may thus serve as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of ASS1 depleted cancers.   
Supporting this model, retrospective survival analysis of several cancers reveal that cancers with both decreased ASS1 expression and high Citrin levels have a trend for significantly worse prognosis.

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  • Dr. Ayelet Erez
1670
A method for selective extraction of precious and rare metals has been developed at the Weizmann Institute. This method allows the efficient and environmentally benign recovery of precious materials that are currently discarded of in large quantities from spent catalysts (automotive and industrial)...

A method for selective extraction of precious and rare metals has been developed at the Weizmann Institute. This method allows the efficient and environmentally benign recovery of precious materials that are currently discarded of in large quantities from spent catalysts (automotive and industrial) from industrial processes (particularly in the electronic industry).

Prof. Igor Lubomirsky’s novel process is based on volatilization for selective extraction of precious and rare metals using benign metal salts, rather than dangerous chlorine gas as a chlorinating agent. The new process requires relatively low temperatures and is free from hazardous waste, among its additional advantages over conventional methods.

We believe that this efficient technology is key to increased reclaimed precious metals output, potentially resulting in the reduction of the demand for primary rare metals.

Applications


·           Recycling precious metals from spent items, e.g. platinum group metals from catalytic convertors


Advantages


·         No toxic input – chlorides are used rather than chlorine gas.

·         No hazardous waste is generated in the process.

·         Mild conditions. High-temperature furnaces and equipment are not required.

·         Relatively simple setup in comparison to conventional ones.

·         Small scale plants are economically viable.


Technology's Essence


Prof. Igor Lubomirsky and his group developed a novel method for the recovery of PGM from spent catalysts that can be applicable for other spent systems as well.

The method comprises of crushing the spent catalyst to obtain a catalyst particulate material with g a predetermined grain size and reacting it with chlorine containing salts rather than pure chlorine gas in a furnace at relatively low temperatures (900oC, far below the temperature required in the conventional volatilization method). This is followed by cooling the volatile PMG chloride product converting it into solid phase metal.

 

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  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
  • Prof. Igor Lubomirsky
1717
Converting two low-energy photons into a single higher-energy photon is of significant importance in many fields. In medical imaging, photon up-conversion is used for imaging scattered specimens, while in photovoltaic devices it could be used to harvest photons with energies lower than the bandgap of...

Converting two low-energy photons into a single higher-energy photon is of significant importance in many fields. In medical imaging, photon up-conversion is used for imaging scattered specimens, while in photovoltaic devices it could be used to harvest photons with energies lower than the bandgap of the absorber.
Currently available systems, based on rare-earth-doped dielectrics, and organic materials are limited in both tunability and absorption cross-section. In fact, no known up-conversion systems operate on photons in the 1000-1500 nm range.
Stable inorganic nanocrystalline up-conversion systems designed at the Weizmann Institute of Science provide broad tunability of both the absorption edge and the luminescence color. These materials have the potential to be utilized in applications such as high-energy photon sources, photovoltaics and IR detection.

Applications


  • Easy to manufacture

  • Robust systems

  • Operation at room temperature


Advantages


  • Photon sources

  • Photovoltaics

  • IR detectors


Technology's Essence


The new up-conversion systems are based on a novel design comprising a compound semiconductor nanocrystal, which incorporates two quantum dots with different bandgaps separated by a tunneling barrier. The expected up-conversion mechanism occurs by the sequential absorption of two photons. The first photon excites an electron–hole pair by interband absorption in the lower-energy core, resulting in a confined hole and a relatively delocalized electron. The second absorbed photon leads to further excitation of the hole, allowing it to cross the barrier layer. This, in turn, is followed by radiative recombination with the delocalized electron.

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  • Prof. Dan Oron
1800
A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses. The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt...

A new software tool used for the removal of artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered electroencephalography (EEG) was developed by the group of Prof. Moses.

The combined use of TMS with EEG allows for a unique measurement of the brain's global response to localized and abrupt stimulations. This may allow TMS-EEG to be used as a diagnostic tool for various neurologic and psychiatric conditions.

However, large electric artifacts are induced in the EEG by the TMS, which are unrelated to brain activity and obscure crucial stages of the brain's response. These artifacts are orders of magnitude larger than the physiological brain activity, and persist from a few to hundreds of milliseconds. However, no generally accepted algorithm is available that can remove the artifacts without unintentionally and significally altering physiological information.

The software designed according to the model along with a friendly GUI is a powerful tool for the TMS-EEG field. The software has tested and proven to be effective on real datasets measured on psychiatric patients.

Applications


  • TMS triggered EEG diagnostics

Advantages


  • Easy to use software with a GUI
  • Exposes the full EEG from the brain

Technology's Essence


The new software tool is based on the observation that, contrary to expectation, the decay of the electrode voltage after the TMS pulse is a power law in time rather than an exponential. A model based on two dimensional diffusion of the accumulated charge from the high electric
fields of the TMS in the skin was built. This model reproduces the artifact precisely, including the many perplexing artifact shapes that are seen on the different electrodes. Artifact removal software based on this model exposes the full EEG from the brain, as validated by continuously reconstructing 50Hz signals that are the same magnitude as the brain signals.

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  • Prof. Elisha Moses
1696
A new method for observing large areas with physically small detectors, which are unable to cover the whole area simultaneously, based on multiplexing several scanned areas onto a single detector unit followed by algorithmic reconstruction of the true field of view. Astronomical observations require...

A new method for observing large areas with physically small detectors, which are unable to cover the whole area simultaneously, based on multiplexing several scanned areas onto a single detector unit followed by algorithmic reconstruction of the true field of view.
Astronomical observations require the ability to detect very weak signals at high spatial resolution. This reflects on the special characteristics of the observation systems; they need to have a large aperture, high resolution detectors and very low system noise. These demands render high costs and complexity.
Our multiplexing and reconstructing method was developed based on the sparse nature of astronomical observations, and it could be implemented in any application in which sporadic data points are to be found against a fixed (whether detailed or blank) background.

Applications


  • Highly efficient telescopes
  • Quick quality assurance systems – fault metrology
  • Implementation in microscopy

Advantages


  • Use of small size detectors
  • Ability to scan large fields (compared to detector size)
  • Maintaining high resolution
  • Significant shortening of scan time
  • Easily applicable to existing systems

Technology's Essence


The method was developed for astronomical observations in which the studied field is immense and the detector size is relatively small and limited. The invention consists of an optical system that directs light (IR, Vis, UV or other) from different locations in the sky to the focal plane of a telescope onto a specific single detector area, creating a multiplexed image in which several portions of the sky are presented collectively.
Such multiplexing is done on each detector unit area with a different set of sky loci.
A reconstruction algorithm was developed to construct sub-observations sets in a method that guarantees unique recovery of the original wide-field image even when objects overlap.

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  • Prof. Avishay Gal-Yam
1753
The Chiral Induced Spin Selectivity (CISS) effect, discovered in recent years by Prof. Ron Naaman from the Weizmann Institute of Science, implies that electrons transferred through chiral molecules possess a specific spin orientation. Hence, the molecular chirality and electron spin are correlated.A...

The Chiral Induced Spin Selectivity (CISS) effect, discovered in recent years by Prof. Ron Naaman from the Weizmann Institute of Science, implies that electrons transferred through chiral molecules possess a specific spin orientation. Hence, the molecular chirality and electron spin are correlated.
A team of researchers lead by Prof. Naaman have been investigating the CISS effect in different systems. They found that the high efficiency of many natural multiple electron reactions can also be attributed to spin alignment of the electrons involved.
The present innovation looks at hydrogen production through water electrolysis, showing that when using anodes coated by chiral molecules the efficiency of the electrolysis process increases by 30% compared to using uncoated, regular electrodes.

Applications


  • Control of electron spin
  • Significant reduction of over-potential in spin sensitive electrochemical reactions
  • Efficient electrochemical processes
  • Minimum side reactions

  • Advantages


     

    Technology's Essence


    Spin selective electrodes made from standard electrode material are coated with chiral molecules. These coated electrodes were used for electrolysis of water and showed superior efficacy compared to standard un-coated electrodes, by reduction of the over-potential required for the process. This is explained by the spin selective electron conduction through the chiral layer:

     

     

     

    Hydrogen production as a function of time for (A) the chiral molecules and (B) for the achiral molecules. The potentials in the brackets refer to the over-potential compared to DNA coated electrode. The measurements were conducted at the Eapp for each of the molecules.

     

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    • Prof. Ron Naaman
    1673
    CF is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in western countries, affecting approximately 30,000 people in the US alone. A major risk in CF arises from chronic bacterial lung infections, affecting 80% of CF patients by the age of 25. Bacterial lung infections are also of major clinical...

    CF is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in western countries, affecting approximately 30,000 people in the US alone. A major risk in CF arises from chronic bacterial lung infections, affecting 80% of CF patients by the age of 25. Bacterial lung infections are also of major clinical importance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), trauma, burn wounds, sepsis, or in patients requiring ventilation. The infections are currently treated with antibiotics, which rapidly become inefficient as resistant bacteria strains arise. The present technology suggests a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of bacterial lung infection in susceptible populations, especially CF patients

    Applications


    • Alternative treatment for bacterial lung infections.
    • A prophylaxis for patients susceptible to bacterial lung infections

    Advantages


    • A novel therapeutic approach to prevent or cure bacterial lung infection.
    • The new therapy is based on reinforcement of the physiological innate immunity rather than on antibiotics.
    • The new therapy can be easily administered, via inhalation.
    • FTY720, a SPH analog, is already in clinical use for treating multiple sclerosis.

    Technology's Essence


    Sphingosine (SPH), a natural bactericidal agent which acts as a part of the human innate immune system in the skin, was found to be an effective treatment and prophylaxis for bacterial lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. The new technology is based on the discovery that both CF human patients and CF mice display reduced rates of SPH in the airways. Moreover, normalizing SPH levels by inhalation prevents or cures the infections in CF mice, thus rendering SPH and its analogs a potent therapeutic agent for CF patients, an alternative to antibiotics.

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    • Prof. Anthony H. Futerman
    1730
    Production of carbon nanotube based transistors through a process comprised of identification, selection, and placement of pristine carbon nanotubes in conjunction with standard electrical circuitry.Semiconductor devices are vital to everyday life, however conventional semiconducting materials are...

    Production of carbon nanotube based transistors through a process comprised of identification, selection, and placement of pristine carbon nanotubes in conjunction with standard electrical circuitry.
    Semiconductor devices are vital to everyday life, however conventional semiconducting materials are quickly approaching their limitations. As devices transition from the microscale to the nanoscale, new techniques for their assembly and testing of their properties must be created. Controllable nanofabrication methods are of increasing importance across a wide field of electronics in everything from energy efficient LEDs in flat-screen monitors to transistors for ultra-powerful computers. Our process presents a novel method for producing high quality nanoscale carbon nanotube based transistors. These methods will be of the utmost importance in the forthcoming nano-revolution.

    Applications


    • Produce flawless carbon nanotubes
    • Identify, select, and position nanotubes with precision
    • Room temperature operation
    • High sensitivity
    • High resolution

    Advantages


    • Single electron transistor (SET) nanoscale imaging
    • Novel nano-electromechanical devices

    Technology's Essence


    The principle behind this technology is two-fold: 1) Synthesis and selection method of flawless carbon nanotubes, and 2) their combination with nanoscale electric circuitry to form fully controlled composite nanoscale electronic device.
    Selection of the carbon nanotube(s) is assisted by a scanning probe microscope (SPM). A composite electronic device is assembled from two separated chips; a nanotube chip where nanotubes are grown over wide trenches, and a standard circuit chip with electrode contacts surrounding the gates to be measured. The nano-assembly is achieved by inserting an SPM cantilever into a trench on the nanotube chip and placing the circuit chip over a suitable nanotube. Once in place, the nanotube is cut locally by passing a strong current between the electrode contacts, and the composite chip is formed.
    This composite electronic device can be used to map electronic potentials with high resolution of 100 nm, high sensitivity of 1microV/Hz1/2, at frequencies of 100 MHz and more and all this at room temperature.

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    • Prof. Shahal Ilani
    1802
    A new signal processing tool for the detection of pulses travelling through media with complex or unknown dispersion properties was developed by the group of Prof. Gal-Yam, originally for detecting radio bursts in astronomical observations. Pulses are applied in various fields such as oil & gas...

    A new signal processing tool for the detection of pulses travelling through media with complex or unknown dispersion properties was developed by the group of Prof. Gal-Yam, originally for detecting radio bursts in astronomical observations.
    Pulses are applied in various fields such as oil & gas exploration, detection (e.g. sonar, lidar and radar) and communication. When pulses pass through dispersive media, the arrival times at the detector of different frequency components may differ, and as a result the pulse may become degraded (e.g. transformed to a longer pulse with reduced intensity), even to the level of becoming indistinguishable in terms of signal to noise. This problem becomes even more challenging when detecting short pulses that travel through complex or unknown media.
    The new method presented here provides a proven and efficient solution that can be applied for different scenarios where short pulses dispersed by complex media are used. 

    Applications


    • Detection and surveying technologies- sonar, lidar, radar etc

    Advantages


    • Efficient, requires limited computational resources
    • Generic, can be applied to various setups
    • Easily implementable into existing systems

    Technology's Essence


    The method includes obtaining an input array of cells, each indicating an intensity of a frequency component of the signal at a representative time. A fast dispersion measure transform (FDMT) is applied to concurrently sum the cells of the input array that lie along different dispersion curves, each curve defined by a known non-linear functional form and being uniquely characterized by a time coordinate and by a value of the dispersion measure. Application of FDMT includes initially generating a plurality of sub-arrays, each representing a frequency sub-band and iteratively combining pairs of adjacent sub-arrays in accordance with an addition rule until all of the initially generated plurality of sub-arrays are combined into an output array of the sums, in which a cell of the output array that is indicative of a transmitted pulse is identified.

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    • Prof. Avishay Gal-Yam
    1710
    Dysregulation of the immune system is the underlying cause of potentially fatal conditions such as sepsis and severe allergic reactions. Adequate therapies are currently absent or lacking. There is therefore an unmet medical need for therapies that would target the underlying causative immune pathways...

    Dysregulation of the immune system is the underlying cause of potentially fatal conditions such as sepsis and severe allergic reactions. Adequate therapies are currently absent or lacking. There is therefore an unmet medical need for therapies that would target the underlying causative immune pathways.
    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) possess promising anti-inflammatory activities, however, are commonly toxic.
    In a series of newly synthesized peptides, the outlined invention provides a method to modify naturally occurring AMPs to possess both potent therapeutic anti-inflammatory activity and minimal toxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.
    The resulting series of peptides were shown to remarkably inhibit severe allergic reaction as well.

    Applications


    • Novel Therapy for sepsis and severe allergic reactions

    Advantages


    • Very potent anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic agents
    • Non-toxic
    • Targeted against the underlying cause of both indications, which is an improper and uncontrolled immune response
    • Diversity – elucidating the parameters that control efficiency and toxicity allows to modify the basic formula to optimally fit different systems

    Technology's Essence


    With natural AMPs properties in mind, Prof. Shai and his team characterized the key modifications that underline anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity. A series of peptides with variable degrees of hydrophobicity, length, charge, position of charge and amino acid chirality were tested for their LPS neutralizing activity.
    It was found that ~20mer peptides under the formula Kn(AL)mKn (wherein n et each occurrence is independently 0-2, and m is 6-9) demonstrate anti-inflammatory activities at nanomolar concentrations as evident by inhibition of TNF? secretion from macrophages, following  LPS induction. Furthermore, a single dose of an exemplary peptide was able to inhibit septic shock in mice induced by purified LPS or by whole heat-killed E.coli.
    In contrast to previous attempts, which focused on increasing hydrophobicity, the core of the present invention is the designation of an optimal hydrophobicity that is necessary for high activity and low toxicity. Additional important features for LPS neutralizing were found to be ?-helical structure and strong oligomerization ability.
    Surprisingly, the present peptides were shown to contain highly potent anti-allergenic activity as well. In-vitro inhibition of Fc?RI-mediated degranulation was recapitulated in-vivo  

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    • Prof. Yechiel Shai
    1765
    A new image reconstruction tool based on non-iterative phase information retrieval from a single diffraction pattern was developed by the group of Prof. Oron.  Lensless imaging techniques enable indirect high resolution observation of objects by measuring the intensity of their diffraction patterns....

    A new image reconstruction tool based on non-iterative phase information retrieval from a single diffraction pattern was developed by the group of Prof. Oron. 
    Lensless imaging techniques enable indirect high resolution observation of objects by measuring the intensity of their diffraction patterns. These techniques utilize radiation in the X-ray regime to image non-periodic objects in sizes that prohibit the use of larger wavelengths. However, retrieving the phase information of the diffraction pattern is not a trivial task, as current methods are divided based on a tradeoff between experimental complexity and computational reconstruction efficiency.
    The method described here is suitable for use with existing lensless imaging techniques to provide direct, robust and efficient phase data while requiring reduced computational and experimental complexity. This method, demonstrated in a laboratory setup on 2D objects, is also applicable in 1D. It can be applied to various phase retrieval applications such as coherent diffractive imaging and ultrashort pulse reconstruction

    Applications


    • Phase microscopy
    • Signal processing
    • Holography
    • X-ray imaging

    Advantages


    • A Generic solution to the phase retrieval problem
    • Non-iterative approach
    • An efficient and noise robust tool

    Technology's Essence


    The method is based on the fact that the Fourier transform of the diffraction intensity measurement is the autocorrelation of the object. The autocorrelation and cross-correlations of two sufficiently separated objects are spatially distinct. Based on this, the method consists of three main steps: (a) The sum of the objects’ autocorrelations, as well as their cross-correlation, are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the measured diffraction pattern. (b) The individual objects’ autocorrelations are reconstructed from their sum and the cross-correlation. (c) Using the two intensities and the interference cross term, double-blind Fourier holograph is applied to recover the phase by solving a set of linear equations.

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    • Prof. Dan Oron
    1679
    A novel therapy for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) using mAbs combinationBreast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) representing about 15% of all breast cancer cases, is the deadliest form of all breast cancer subtypes, and tends to affect...

    A novel therapy for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) using mAbs combination
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) representing about 15% of all breast cancer cases, is the deadliest form of all breast cancer subtypes, and tends to affect women at a younger age. Unfortunately TNBC cannot be treated with the common receptor targeted therapies since it does not express these targets, the estrogen, progesterone and Her2/neu receptors. Therefor systemic treatment options are currently limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The lack of effective targeted therapies, resistance to chemotherapy, and early metastatic spread have contributed to the poor prognoses and outcomes associated with TNBC.
    The current technology offers a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC. The application of two novel, noncompetitive antibodies against EGFR, achieves a robust degradation EGFR resulting in tumor inhibition.

    Applications


    • Novel and unique antibody targeted therapy for TNBC.
    • The novel anti EGFR antibodies can cooperate synergistically with the currently marketed EGFR antibodies.

    Advantages


    • A promising therapeutic scenario to treat TNBC.
    • Enhanced EGFR degradation and improved anti-tumor activity, in contrast to clinically approved anti-EGFR mAbs, which display no cooperative effects.
    • Lysosomal EGFR degradation pathway induced by epitope-distinct antibody mixture may potentially lead to improved therapeutic outcome, and reduced resistance.

    Technology's Essence


    Prof. Yosef Yarden and his team demonstrated that a combination of novel antibodies that target distinct regions on the human EGF receptor resulted in its robust and synergistic down-regulation, leading to pronounced tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, the combined mAbs induced lysosomal degradation of EGFR, while avoiding the recycling route. Such irreversible mode of EGFR degradation may potentially increase response rate or delay the onset of patient resistance.
    Conversely, combining cetuximab and panitumumab, the mAbs routinely used to treat colorectal cancer patients, did not improve receptor degradation because they are both attracted to the same epitope on EGFR.

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    • Prof. Yosef Yarden
    1745
    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the developed countries. It is a highly heterogeneous disease even among patients with the same type and grade of cancer. Thus, drug development for cancer is extremely challenging. However there are some consistencies; most tumor cells exhibit genomic instability...

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the developed countries. It is a highly heterogeneous disease even among patients with the same type and grade of cancer. Thus, drug development for cancer is extremely challenging. However there are some consistencies; most tumor cells exhibit genomic instability with an increased expression of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.
    P53 is a key tumor suppressor that is mutated in more than half of the human cancers. Over the years several mouse models were developed in order to study p53 mutations. Interestingly it has been shown that mice homozygous for mutant p53 are viable, and develop malignant tumors only in adulthood.
    Prof. Rotter and her team revealed the mechanism by which embryos are protected from mutant p53-induced transformation. They found, using embryos stem cells (ESCs), that the conformation of mutant p53 in ESCs is stabilized to a WT conformation. They further identified the network of proteins that may shift p53 transformation to its WT form.
    This technology presents methods (compositions and kits) of stabilizing mutant p53 in ESCs by interacting proteins, thus propose a novel cancer therapy.

    Applications


    • Cancer

    Advantages


    • Targeted for p53
    • Safe

    Technology's Essence


    The researchers  hypothesized that cellular factors in the pluripotent cells contribute the stabilization of the WT conformation of p53. They used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based interactome analysis to examind the interaction network of the different conformations of p53 in WT and Mut ESCs compared with somatic cells from the spleen. They immunoprecipitated WT and Mut conformation of p53 and used p53 KO cells as controls for background binding. Importantly, they identifies chromatic-specific proteomic network that is suggested to bind p53 and act as a stabilizer of Mut p53 into a WT conformation. This network (59 proteins) includes the CCT complex, USP7, Aurora kinase, Nedd4, and trim24. Interactions with this network enables the activation of WT activity of p53 and eliminates the gain-of function Mut activities, despite the p53 mutation.
    Overall this is a proposed mechanism of rescuing ESCs cells from transformation which sets the basis for future p53-targeted cancer therapeutics. 

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    • Prof. Varda Rotter

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